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  • SOYBEAN VEIN NECROSIS VIRUS

    Soybean Vein Necrosis Virus is an Orthotospovirus. This virus can be seed borne or vectored by multiple thrips species.

  • TAR SPOT OF CORN

    Tar spot is caused by the fungal pathogen Phyllachoramaydis. Under favorable conditions for disease, yield loss on susceptible hybrids can be severe.

  • 10 TIPS FOR PARENTS TO HELP THEIR CHILDREN AVOID TEEN PREGNANCY

    The National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy offers these 10 tips for parents:

    1. Be clear about your own sexual values and attitudes...

  • 101 GROCERY & HOUSEHOLD & COST CUTTING TIPS

    1. Transfer small amounts (sour cream, yogurt, etc.) to an appropriate size container. They last much longer.

    2. Use rubber spatulas to clean out jars, bottles, bowls, etc...

  • 5 MISTAKES TO AVOID WHEN PREPARING YOUR HOLIDAY TURKEY

    Most of us buy our turkey frozen.  Because turkeys are frozen with the neck and giblets packaged inside the turkey, it is necessary to defrost it before cooking.  Three safe ways are available to defrost the bird.

  • ACHIEVING EMOTIONAL WELLNESS

    The area to understand and cope with feelings and emotions through a positive attitude and strong sense of self. This may include having a sense of fun and laughter, expressing yourself and feelings appropriately and constructively, having a sense of control in your life and being able to adapt to change.

  • ACHIEVING ENVIRONMENTAL WELLNESS

    Environmental Wellness means taking care of both the global environment as well as your immediate personal environment through sustainable practices and organization skills. This may include recycling plastic, glass and paper products when possible, maintaining a clean and organized home and/or room, and spending time outdoors.

  • ACHIEVING INTELLECTUAL WELLNESS

    Intellectual Wellness is being open to new experiences and ideas by creatively, curiously and critically thinking and seeking out new challenges. This may include having goals to learn a new skill or study a particular topic, being a lifelong learner, committing time and energy to professional and self-development.

  • ACHIEVING PHYSICAL WELLNESS

     Maintaining a healthy body through smart diet and activity choices. This may include eating a balanced nutritional diet, exercising regularly, at least 60 minutes per day for youth or 2.5 hours per week for adults, and being generally free from common illness.

  • ACHIEVING SPIRITUAL WELLNESS

    Spiritual wellness is where we establish peace and harmony in our lives by demonstrating an individual purpose and reflecting your values and beliefs in your actions. This may include having a sense of meaning and purpose in life, trusting yourself and others and being able to forgive and let go, having principles, ethics, and morals that provide guides for your life.

  • ADAPTING TO SEA LEVEL RISE: ECONOMIC AND ECOLOGIC ROLES FOR SEASHORE MALLOW

    Although seashore mallow has application in inland saline or non-saline situations these thoughts are particularly about problems driven by climate change and sea level rise and its impact on the coastal ecotone. 

  • ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT AND BEHAVIOR

    Physical restlessness, fidgeting, arguments with parents over rules, neatness, time management.

  • ALFALFA WEEVIL CONTROL IN ALFALFA

    The alfalfa weevil (AW) overwinters in both the adult and egg stages. Although egg laying occurs in the fall and spring, larvae hatching from spring-laid eggs cause the most damage. Eggs are laid in the alfalfa stem any time temperatures are above 48 degrees F.

  • ALFALFA WEEVIL CONTROL IN ALFALFA (Section 2)

    The alfalfa weevil (AW) overwinters in both the adult and egg stages. Although egg laying occurs in the fall and spring, larvae hatching from spring-laid eggs cause the most damage.

  • AMERICAN HOLLY, DELAWARE’S STATE TREE

    Shirley Duffy is a recent transplant to Delaware who is proud of her new state. And as an avid gardener, she knew just the way to show her state pride — by planting an American holly in her Newark yard.

  • AN OIL-SEED BIOFUEL MULTI-USE CROP GROWN WITH SALTWATER

    Grow a salt-tolerant, oil-seed, multi-use crop on saline land or dry land that can be irrigated with brackish water or seawater, thus freeing fresh water and high quality soil for food and feed and bringing poor land into production.

  • ANTHRACNOSE LEAF BLIGHT AND STALK ROT OF CORN

    Anthracnose leaf blight and stalk rot of corn, caused by the fungus Colletotrichum graminicola, is a disease of worldwide importance.  Yield losses can approach 40% and up to 80% lodging has been observed in fields with severe levels of anthracnose.  Anthracnose can be found in corn produced in Delaware and can pose problems to local growers. 

  • APHID CONTROL IN SMALL GRAINS IN THE SPRING

    The most common aphid species found in Delaware small grain fields are the English grain aphid, bird cherry-oat aphid, corn leaf aphid, and the greenbug. These four species can overwinter on small grains as eggs or as females which give rise to offspring in the spring. 

  • APPLIED RESEARCH RESULTS ON FIELD CROP AND VEGETABLE DISEASE CONTROL

    The primary purpose of this book is to provide cooperators and contributors a summary of the results of field research. Many data summaries and conclusions in chapters from this book have been submitted to the American Phytopathological Society for publication in Plant Disease Management Reports in 2015.

  • ARTILLERY FUNGUS AND OTHER THINGS THAT GROW IN MULCH

    Landscape mulch usually consists of hardwood shreds or bark chips, providing cover to hold moisture and add a finished look. Wood in mulch also provides a food source for fungi that are natural decomposers, breaking down plant material and utilizing organic matter. Without fungi, dead leaves, twigs and branches would clutter forests and landscapes. 

  • ASH RUST

    Ash rust, caused by the rust fungus Puccinia sparganioides, is a disease which infects white and green ash in Delaware. Black ash is also reported as a host where it occurs. Leaves, petioles and green twigs are infected. Ash rust, like many rust diseases, needs two different hosts to complete its complicated life cycle. The alternate host for ash rust is marsh and cord grass (Spartina spp.and Distichlis spicata) which is found in coastal areas.

  • AVOIDING TOO MUCH FAT, SATURATED FAT, AND CHOLESTEROL

    Choose a diet low in fat, saturated fat and cholesterol does not mean "never eat cheese" because it contains fat or "never eat egg yolks" because they contain cholesterol. The total amount of fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol in your diet is what matters.

  • AWARENESS OF POTENTIAL PLANT TOXICITY TO GRAZING ANIMALS

    Effects on animal health from consuming or contacting potentially toxic plants can range from none to death. Potential deleterious effects include tainted milk; liver or kidney damage; cardiovascular, nervous system, musculoskeletal, or gastrointestinal problems;

  • Agricultural Leasing and Farmland Purchases in Delaware

    Under a crop share lease, a tenant pays the landowner a certain percentage of harvested crops.  In return, a landlord allows the tenant to use the land and may pay a percentage of certain input costs.  The percentage of both crops and selected expenses are usually based on local custom. 

  • Arugula

    • Eruca sativa, Arugula
    • Brassicaceae family (mustards)
    • Sunlight: full sun. Light shade may help slow bolting.
    • Soil conditions: rich, well-drained soil.
  • BACTERIAL LEAF SCORCH

    Bacterial leaf scorch (BLS) of hardwood trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants, is caused by the bacterium, Xylella fastidiosa. The small, xylem limited bacterium is carried from plant to plant by small insects such as leaf hoppers, sharpshooters, and spittlebugs. 

  • BAGWORMS (LEPIDOPTERA: PSYCHIDAE)

    Bagworms feed on a variety of deciduous and evergreen plants including arborvitae, juniper, spruce, pine, maples, sycamores and numerous others. Evergreen trees and shrubs cannot recover from complete defoliation; whereas deciduous trees usually develop new leaves following defoliation.

  • BARLEY YELLOW DWARF VIRUS

    Barley Yellow Dwarf (BYD) is caused by the viral pathogen Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus (BYDV) complex. The BYDV complex consists of five closely related viruses in the Luteoviridae family.

  • BASIC TIPS FOR USING THE WEB SOIL SURVEY TO RETRIEVE INFORMATION FOR NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT PLANNING

    The USDA-NRCS has created the Web Soil Survey (WSS) as a clearance house for soil survey data from the Soil Survey Geographic Database (SSURGO). Currently, there are data available for almost all counties in the U.S.

  • BASIC TIPS FOR USING THE WEB SOIL SURVEY TO RETRIEVE INFORMATION FOR NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT PLANNING

    The USDA-NRCS has created the Web Soil Survey (WSS) as a clearance house for soil survey data from the Soil Survey Geographic Database (SSURGO). Currently, there are data available for almost all counties in the U.S. 

  • BASIL DOWNY MILDEW

    DOWNY MILDEW ON BASIL is caused by an Oomycete pathogen that only goes to basil, but can be devastating. Symptoms include leaf yellowing, followed by dark lesions, and leaves of this popular herb become unusable. Spores are produced on the undersides of leaves, but can be confused with other fungi, dust and potting material. 

  • BEANS

    BEANS: General information- Phaseolus vulgaris, Beans, Fabaceae family, full sun, well-drained, fertile soil.

  • BEEFSTEAK TOMATOES

    BEEFSTEAK TOMATOES: General information- Solanum lycopersicum, Tomato Solanaceae family. Sunlight: full sun. Soil conditions: well-drained, fertile soil, high in organic matter. Tomatoes come in both determinate (bush) varieties and indeterminate (climbing) varieties.

  • BEETS

    BEETS: General information- Beta vulgaris, Amaranthaceae family, full sun, fertile, evenly moist soil, free of rocks. Beets need cool temperatures to germinate and grow.

  • BETTER PARENT-TEACHER CONFERENCES: A GUIDE FOR PARENTS

    As a parent, you want the best education for your child. There are many ways you can help. One way is through parent- teacher conferences.

  • BOXWOOD BLIGHT

    The fungus Calonectria pseudonaviculata (Cylindrocladium pseudonaviculatum) causes severe defoliation and death of container grown boxwoods, and dieback in in-ground plantings. Most boxwood species are susceptible, including American and English boxwood (Buxus sempervirens), little leaf boxwood (B. microphylla) and hybrids such as B. sinica.

  • BROCCOLI

    BROCCOLI: General information- Brassica oleracea var. botrytis, Brassicaceae family, full sun. Can tolerate light shade but will slow maturity. Requires well-drained, fertile soil high in organic matter. Needs plentiful, consistent moisture.

  • BRUSSEL SPROUTS

    BRUSSEL SPROUTS: General information- Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera, Brassicaceae family, full sun, consistently moist, fertile soil. Can be harvested as stalks or as sprouts.

  • BUYING AND INSTALLING CERTIFIED SOD

    Like a house built on sand, your beautiful sod can be destroyed in hours by improper care at the outset. Its roots have been severed in the harvesting process and this makes it totally dependent on your tender, loving care for at least the first three weeks of its new life.

  • Back to School

    September is a crisp, exciting time for many of us. It’s a time of new beginnings and is often more the start of the "new year" than January 1

  • Basil

    BASIL: General information- Ocimum basilicum, Lamiaceae family, full sun, well-drained soil, high in organic matter. Grows well in a container. Annual

  • Boosting Emotional IQ

    Children need help to deal with their emotions. This means teaching them how to respond when feelings arise.

  • Building Strong Family Relationships

    Our family teaches us how to function in the world. It should provide love and warmth to all of its members. A strong family gives its members the support they need to make it through life’s toughest spots.

  • CABBAGE

    CABBAGE: General information- Brassica oleracea var. capitata, Brassicaceae family, full sun. Can tolerate light shade but will slow maturity. Light shade can be beneficial in warm weather. Prefers well-drained, fertile soil, high in organic matter.

  • CALCULATING THE LIME RECOMMENDATION USING THE ADAMS-EVANS SOIL BUFFER

    The University of Delaware Soil Testing Lab uses the Adams-Evans buffer pH test to determine lime requirement for a field based on soil test analysis of an 8-inch composite soil sample. In this quick reference guide, we will walk through the steps for determining the lime recommendation using the Adams-Evans buffer pH. 

  • CARING FOR POINSETTIAS

    Popular for red flower-like bracts, poinsettias are great additions to holiday decor!  There are new cultivars that are compact, or have unique colors such as pink, yellow and orange (Thanksgiving poinsettias?).

  • CARROTS

    CARROTS: General information- Daucus carota var. sativus, Umbelliferae family, full sun. Will tolerate very light shade. Good quality roots require plentiful moisture, well-drained soil that is deep, loose, free of stones and high in organic matter.

  • CAULIFLOWER

    CAULIFLOWER: General information- Brassica oleracea var. botrytis, Cauliflower, Brassicaceae family, full sun. Light shade. Can tolerate light shade but will slow maturity. Requires well-drained soil. Prefers fertile soil high in organic matter. Needs plentiful, consistent moisture.

  • CERCOSPORA LEAF BLIGHT AND PURPLE SEED STAIN IN SOYBEAN

    Cercospora leaf blight and purple seed stain are caused by the fungus Cercospora kikuchii. This is a widespread disease, but yield loss is rarely observed.

  • CEREAL LEAF BEETLE CONTROL IN SMALL GRAINS

    Cereal Leaf Beetle: Overwintering adults emerge in mid-March and begin to lay eggs after 2 to 3 weeks of feeding. Since females prefer to lay eggs on young plants, spring-planted oats and late-planted wheat are the predominant hosts. 

  • CEREAL RUST MITE IN TIMOTHY

    Cereal rust mite adults are small measuring less than one millimeter (mm), and for the first time observer a 10-20X hand lens is needed to see them.

  • CHARCOAL ROT IN SOYBEAN

    Charcoal rot of soybean can be a major yield-robber of drought-stressed soybeans in Delaware. The disease is caused by Macrophomina phaseolina, a common soil-borne fungal pathogen that inhabits much of Delaware’s agricultural soils. 

  • CHECKLIST FOR PLANT REMOVAL DECISIONS

    During construction or landscaping, you may need to make decisions about existing plants on your property—should they stay or should they go? Sustainable sites promote preservation of healthy, mature specimens that offer benefits such as erosion control and wildlife habitat and do not pose a threat to human safety or the natural environment.

  • CHERRY TOMATOES

    CHERRY TOMATOES: General information- Solanum lycopersicum, TomatoSolanaceae family. Sunlight: full sun. Soil conditions: well-drained, fertile soil, high in organic matter. Tomatoes come in both determinate (bush) varieties and indeterminate (climbing) varieties.

  • CHIVES

    CHIVES: General information- Allium schoenoprasum, Amaryllidaeae family, sun and part shade, well-drained soil, rich in organic matter. Grows well in a container. Perennial.

  • CHOOSING LAWN AND LANDSCAPE CARE COMPANIES

    Many homeowners no longer perform the work themselves when it comes to applying fertilizer and pesticides to their lawns and landscape beds. Lawn and/or landscape companies willing to supply that service are numerous. 

  • CHOOSING YOUR WILL AND ESTATE PLANNING ATTORNEY

    Do-it-yourself “legal” documents and estate planning software can be found in office supply superstores and scores of web sites. Some publications and advertisements lead a person to believe that they can handle all their estate planning needs either by themselves or with just one phone call, plus a hefty fee to a slick attorney operating from the internet.

  • CILANTRO

    CILANTRO: General information- Coriandrum sativum, Apiaceae family, full to part sun, loamy, well-drained soil. Cilantro (leaves) Coriander (seeds). Grows well in a container. Annual.

  • CLEMATIS VARIETIES PRUNING GUIDE

    Early Flowering: Blooms early in spring from last season’s buds (old wood). Only prune after flowering and remove dying vines. Mid-Season Flowering: Blooms in late spring and early summer before growth begins. Flowers from the side shoot off the previous year’s growth. Pruning must be done in early spring before new growth is visible.

  • COLD SUMMER SOUPS

    Cold Roasted Tomato Soup- Serves: 8 Ingredients: 1 tablespoon extra-virgin olive oil, 3 pounds large ripe tomatoes, cut in half crosswise, remove stem area, 6 medium bell peppers, cut in half crosswise, ribs and seeds removed...

  • COLLARDS

    Collards: General information- Brassica oleracea var. acephala, Brassicaceae family, full sun. Prefers full sun in spring but can benefit from light shade during hot weather. Requires well-drained soil. Prefers well-drained, fertile soil high in organic matter.

  • COMBATING SOIL COMPACTION

    Soil texture refers to the size of soil particles, with clayey soils having the smallest particles, sandy the largest, and silty, medium. Loamy soils posses a relatively even concentration of the three particle sizes.

  • CONSIDER A VEGETABLE GARDEN THIS YEAR

    How much time do you have to plant, weed and harvest in your garden? A small garden is best for beginners. Go bigger as your skills and time increase. Do you have a sunny spot? Most vegetables require 6 to 8 hours of sunlight. Vegetables prefer loose, well drained soil; rich in organic matter (compost).

  • CONSIDERATIONS FOR HERBICIDE USE IN PASTURES

    Weeds are often not desirable in pastures for many reasons. Many weeds are less palatable to animals, weeds decrease rapidly in nutritive value as they mature, and some can be toxic if consumed in large enough quantities. Weeds can also reduce the amount of desirable vegetation. Weed infestations can often be prevented by implementing cultural practices that maintain a dense cover of desirable forage where weeds find it difficult to germinate and grow.

  • CONTROLLING BACKYARD INVADERS

    Invasive plants quickly overwhelm and displace existing native plants by reducing the availability of light, water, nutrients and space. They have few, if any, natural controls to keep them in check. Ecologists now rank invasion by exotic plants, animals, and pathogens second only to habitat loss as a major threat to local biodiversity.

  • CRAPE MYRTLE BARK SCALE

    Crape myrtle bark scale begins its life cycle as tiny, pink to purple colored crawlers, which subsequently produce a fuzzy white waxy cover. Females remain sessile under the cover, whereas males pupate and leave their covers as a tiny, pink, gnat-like insect with wings 

  • CUCUMBER

    CUCUMBER: General information- Cucumis sativus, Cucurbitaceae family, full sun, well-drained, fertile soil, high in organic matter.. Vining and bush varieties. Bush varieties grow well in a container.

  • CURVULARIA LEAF SPOT

    Curvularia leaf spot is caused by the fungal pathogen Curvularia lunata. This disease was first observed in Delaware at the end of the 2020 season. The economic impact of this disease is still unknown in the United States.

  • Canning Fruits

    Fruits, acidified tomatoes, pickled products, and fruit spreads may be processed safely in a boiling-water bath.

  • Canning Vegetables

    In the interest of food safety, vegetables must be processed in a pressure canner. Pressure for processing ranges between 5 pounds pressure to 15 pounds pressure, depending on the type of canner and food being processed. Processing time varies according to specific vegetable and size container.

  • Choosing a Credit Counselor

    Living paycheck to paycheck? Worried about debt collectors? Can't seem to develop a workable budget, let alone save money for retirement? If this sounds familiar, you may want to consider the services of a credit counselor.

  • Choosing a Financial Advisor

    You work hard to earn your money. You should work just as hard to make your money work for you. But if you spend time investigating all the investment options available to you, you will have little time for anything else! Financial advisers can save you time.

  • Choosing a Summer Camp

    Summer camp can be a fun, growing time for many school-aged children. If you are thinking about summer camp, here are some things to consider...

  • Communicating About Money

    Money is a common problem for a family, regardless of income, age and education of family members. Sometimes a lack of income to meet basic needs causes the money hassle. But, more often, inadequate communication about money is the root of financial problems.

  • Communication Skills for your Family

    Communication is the basic building block of our relationships.
    It is through communication that we convey our thoughts, feelings, and connection to one another.

  • Corn Smut

    Corn smut is caused by the fungal pathogen Ustilago maydis. Spores are spread through wind or water splashing to nearby plants. This pathogen infects the corn through the silks prior to pollination, or by wounds on the plant.

  • Creating and Using Enterprise Budgets

    An enterprise is defined as a single crop or livestock commodity that produces a marketable product. The mix of enterprises an agricultural producer raises determines the overall profitability of a farming business. 

  • Credit Repair: Self Help May be Best

    A good credit rating is very important. Businesses inspect your credit history when they evaluate your applications for credit, insurance, employment, and even leases.

  • Credit Scoring

    Ever wonder how a creditor decides whether to grant you credit? For years, creditors have been using credit scoring systems to determine if you'd be a good risk for credit cards and auto loans.

  • Credit and Divorce

    Mary and Bill recently divorced. Their divorce decree stated that Bill would pay the balances on their three joint credit card accounts. Months later, after Bill neglected to pay off these accounts, all three creditors contacted Mary for payment...

  • Credit and your Consumer Rights

    A good credit rating is very important. Businesses inspect your credit history when they evaluate your applications for credit, insurance, employment, and even leases.

  • DEALING WITH DROUGHT IN THE LANDSCAPE

    It is less expensive economically and environmentally to maintain landscape plants during a drought with minimal watering than to allow landscape plants to die and lose the benefits they provide. 

  • DECTES STEM BORER MANAGEMENT IN SOYBEANS

    The Dectes stem borer (DSB) is a longhorn beetle that is native to North America, and feeds on many wild and some cultivated plant species. 

  • DEFINING HIGH PHOSPHORUS SOILS IN DELAWARE

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for optimum plant growth. However, continued application of manures and fertilizers to soils has led to an accumulation of P in many Delaware soils to levels well above those needed for optimum crop growth. 

  • DELAWARE CHRISTMAS TREES

    This season, many people are shopping for a perfect cut tree or live tree to decorate their homes. Our local Christmas tree growers face many challenges to growing a perfect tree, an expensive and time-consuming process. A Christmas tree takes 8 to 10 years to grow to a good size, and there are many hurdles along the way.

  • DELAWARE GARDENER’S GUIDE TO LAWN AND LANDSCAPE FERTILIZERS

     Fertilizers contain one or more essential plant nutrients and can be applied to landscapes to improve plant growth and quality or to correct a nutrient deficiency. There are many fertilizers available to consumers at local lawn and garden centers. 

  • DELAWARE GARDENER’S GUIDE TO SOIL PH

    Soil pH is a measure of soil acidity or alkalinity. On the pH scale a value of 7 is neutral, pH values less than 7 are acidic, and pH values greater than 7 are alkaline. Homeowners and gardeners are interested in soil pH because soil pH directly affects the growth and quality of many landscape plants.

  • DELAWARE GARDENING: CHALLENGE TO NEWCOMERS

    Gardening in Delaware can be challenging. While the state of Delaware is small, it is comprised of two different growing environments—the piedmont and coastal plane. The piedmont covers about 5% of the land area of Delaware and exists on only the northern most corner of the state.

  • DELAWARE LIVABLE LAWNS

    The goal of the Delaware Livable Lawns initiative is simple - reduce fertilizer and pesticide runoff from lawns. Did you know that the EPA considers stormwater runoff from yards, streets, parking lots and other areas to be one of the most significant sources of contamination in our country’s waters?

  • DESIGNING A SUSTAINABLE LANDSCAPE TO SERVE YOUR NEEDS

    Many traditional home landscapes feature vast areas of under-utilized space, such as large turf grass lawns. Sustainable sites feature spaces for human enjoyment, considering opportunities to design outdoor rooms that suit specific needs as well as promote the health of the environment.

  • DETERMINING THE PRESENCE OF GLYPHOSATE-RESISTANT HORSEWEED UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS

    Glyphosate is the active ingredient in Roundup, Touchdown, Duramax, and numerous other brand names. If resistance is suspected in one of your fields, some questions should be asked to help determine if herbicide resistance is the reason for lack of control.

  • DIAGNOSING HORTICULTURAL PLANT PROBLEMS

    Diagnosing horticultural plant problems is similar to being a detective. The investigator must collect and evaluate all clues, keep good notes, establish the facts, and synthesize them into a conclusion. Take adequate representative samples and keep collected samples in good condition. Have an open mind and don't assume that the current problem is the same as another similar one.

  • DIETARY FIBER

    Dietary fiber is the part of plants that humans cannot digest. Although fiber was once thought to be a very simple constituent of food, it is now divided into two types – soluble and insoluble.

  • DILL

    DILL: General information- Anethum graveolens, Dill, Apiaceae family, full sun. Grows best in loamy, well drained soil but can grow in poor soil. Grows well in a container. Annual

  • DISEASES OF TURFGRASS: IDENTIFICATION AND MANAGEMENT

    Turfgrass diseases are diagnosed by identifying symptoms and signs of infection. Symptoms are the response of the plant that results from an infection by a plant disease causing organism or stress. 

  • DOGWOOD SAWFLY

    Dogwood Sawfly is an insect pest that can affect dogwood plants in summer. Sawflies are from the order Hymenoptera (same as ants, bees, and wasps). There are many types of sawflies, like the rose slug and hibiscus sawfly, and immatures feed on many common landscape plants.

  • DOLLAR SPOT OF TURFGRASS

    Dollar spot is an economically important disease of both cool-season and warm-season turfgrass. Due to the persistent nature of this disease, more money is spent on managing dollar spot than any other turfgrass diseases. Dollar spot reduces the aesthetic and playing quality of turfgrass.

     

  • DOWNY MILDEW OF IMPATIENS

    Downy mildew of impatiens is a serious disease in the United States, caused by the fungus-like Oomycete, Plasmopara obducens. Originally found in Europe, impatiens downy mildew was detected in greenhouses in California in the U.S. in 2004.  Downy mildew was first confirmed in Delaware on Impatiens walleriana in Kent County in August 2012.

  • DOWNY MILDEW ON LIMA BEAN

    Downy mildew of lima bean, caused by the oomycete, Phytophthora phaseoli, is a common disease in Delaware production areas. Proper identification and management of the disease is critical for protecting lima bean yields. This publication will review how to correctly identify the disease, describe its lifecycle, and outline management options for growers.

  • Dealing with Grief

    Adults sometimes think that children do not experience feelings of grief, but even babies feel loss and show signs of grief. Children experience many losses—such as losing a favorite toy, being separated from a parent, losing a family member to death, moving to a new home or school.

  • EFFICACY OF VEGETATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL BUFFERS TO CAPTURE EMISSIONS FROM TUNNEL VENTILATED POULTRY HOUSES

    Emissions of dust, gases and odors from poultry facilities pose major challenges for the poultry industry. In addition to environmental issues associated with air and water quality, nuisance complaints associated with alterations in the ventilations system and urban encroachment are becoming a greater concern. 

  • EGGPLANT

    • Scientific Name: Solanum melongena
      • Family: Solanaceae
    • Warm season
    • Planting Window: 
      • Start seeds under lights indoors in mid-March for transplanting
  • END-OF-SEASON CORN STALK NITRATE TESTING TO OPTIMIZE NITROGEN MANAGEMENT

    The end-of-season corn stalk nitrate test is a simple, inexpensive tool that can be used to assess the nitrogen (N) status of a corn crop at the end of the growing season. Studies in Delaware, and other states, have shown that corn producers can use this test to improve their N management programs on a site-specific basis (Binford et al., 1990; Sims et al., 1995). 

  • ESTABLISHMENT OF VEGETATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL BUFFERS AROUND POULTRY FARMS

    For many years the poultry industry has discouraged planting tall crops, shrubs or trees around poultry houses for fear the vegetation would restrict summer-time ventilation in naturally-ventilated poultry houses.

  • ESTATE AND SUCCESSION PLANNING FOR DELAWARE FARM FAMILIES

    The goal of passing on the farm to the next generation requires careful thought, communication, and planning. Estate and succession plans help farm families think through the transfer process. Most people do not want to think about death, however, and do not develop a succession or estate plan until it is too late.

  • ESTIMATING YIELD GOAL FOR CROPS

    Many crop management decisions require farmers or their agronomist, crop consultant, or nutrient consultant to make an estimation of the expected yield from a given field. Farmers recognize that yields for the same crop are variable from field-to-field and that a given crop cannot be expected to produce a consistent yield across the entire state. 

  • Early Season Symptom Chart

    Early Season Symptom Chart: After spring green up. Symptoms not expressed on leaves emerge after the average temperatures reach 68°F +.

  • Enjoying Your Child

    In today’s busy world it can be hard to find time to play. Play is as important for adults as it is for children. Play increases our creativity and can make us better problem solvers. 

  • FERTILIZER BASICS

    Proper fertilization will enhance plant growth without polluting the environment. However, misuse of fertilizer can harm the environment and injure landscape plants by causing fertilizer burn to leaves and/or roots.

  • FROGEYE LEAF SPOT

    Caused by the fungus Cercospora sojina. The occurrence and severity of this disease varies across the region. Resistance to Group 11 (QoI) fungicides has been widely documented.

  • FROGEYE LEAF SPOT ON SOYBEAN

    Over the past 10 years the disease has been reported throughout soybean growing regions of the United States as far north as Minnesota [1].  FLS occurs in Delaware but to date its effects have not been severe.  This publication will discuss symptoms of the disease, the disease cycle, and management recommendations.

  • FUNGICIDE EFFICACY FOR CONTROL OF CORN DISEASES

    The Corn Disease Working Group (CDWG) has developed the following information on fungicide efficacy for control of major corn diseases in the United States.

  • FUNGICIDE EFFICACY FOR CONTROL OF FOLIAR SOYBEAN DISEASES

    The North Central Regional Committee on Soybean Diseases and the Regional Committee for Soybean Rust Pathology (NCERA-212 and NCERA-208) have developed the following information on foliar fungicide efficacy for control of major foliar soybean diseases in the United States.

  • FUSARIUM HEAD BLIGHT

    FHB, or scab, affects wheat, barley, oats, corn, and other grasses. Fusarium graminearum (syn. Gibberella zeae) is favored by warm, humid conditions during flowering and early kernel development.

  • FUSARIUM HEAD BLIGHT MANAGEMENT IN WHEAT

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is considered to be one of the most devastating diseases of wheat and barley worldwide. Multiple outbreaks of FHB have affected Delaware growers over the past decade, most recently in 2013. 

  • Fair Debt Collection Practices Act

    A debt collector is defined as any person who regularly collects or attempts to collect, directly or indirectly, consumer debts asserted to be owed to another person.

  • Fall Cover Crops

    During spring and throughout the summer, gardeners are busy harvesting from crops that were planted in their gardens. Our garden soils provide an abundance of harvested peas, lettuce, peppers, tomatoes, sweet corn, yellow squash, zucchini, basil, zinnias and many other vegetables and flowers. 

  • Family Commuication

    It is much more than the words you say. It is what you say, how you say it, why you say it, when you say it, and what you don’t say. It is your facial expression, your gestures, your posture, and your tone of voice.

  • Family Glue: Ideas for Year-Round Family Fun

     Spending time together as a family takes planning, but it’s a good investment. When children feel close to their parents, they try harder to please their parents and make them proud. This makes the whole family unit stronger.

  • Farm Business Structures: Pros and Cons of Each

    Choosing a business structure for a farming business can be difficult because entities differ in tax and legal implications. Choosing a business structure for the farm operation could result in either beneficial or negative consequences.

  • Farm Management Strategies During Rising Inflation

    Farming during 2022 has been extremely stressful for agricultural producers with so many things changing about the economy, commodity markets, global events, and production costs soaring.

  • Forty-Five Ways to Live on Less

    Here are forty-five ideas to cut costs during a period when you are trying to cut costs, live on less, or increase your savings. Food: Eliminate convenience food meals and prepare snacks from your shopping list by making them yourself "from scratch."

  • Freezing Fruits

    For the best in frozen fruits: Choose fruits of top quality to freeze. Wash fruit in cold running water. If submerged in cold water, lift carefully from water. Drain thoroughly in wire basket. Do not let fruit stand in water.

  • Freezing Vegetables

    How to freeze veggies: Choose vegetables of top quality to freeze. Frozen vegetables are no better than the initial product. Wash vegetables in cold running water. If submerged in cold water, lift carefully from water. Drain thoroughly in wire basket.

  • GRASS SAWFLY AND TRUE ARMYWORM MANAGEMENT IN SMALL GRAINS

    Grass Sawfly - Adult sawflies emerge in early April, mate and begin to lay eggs in the leaf margins of small grains. Most egg laying is complete by early May.

  • GRAY LEAF SPOT

    Gray leaf spot is caused by the fungal pathogen, Cercosporazeae-maydis. This disease is favored by warm temperatures over 80°F, and extended periods of high humidity. Fungal spores overwinter in corn crop residue, increasing chances for infection on non-rotated crops.

  • GRAY LEAF SPOT ON CORN

    Gray leaf spot, caused by the fungus Cercospora zeae maydis is the most significant yield-limiting disease of corn worldwide [1].  The disease was first reported in Illinois in 1924, and has increased in prevalence throughout corn growing regions since 1988. 

  • GREEN ROOFS

    A green roof is a specially-engineered rooftop that supports plant life. Green roofs have been utilized in Europe for 30 years and are quickly gaining popularity in the United States.

  • GROUNDCOVER ALTERNATIVES TO TURF GRASS

    Plants that spread over time to cover the ground are referred to as groundcovers. Usually this term denotes low-growing plants, but groundcovers can also refer to taller, spreading shrubs or trees that grow together to create a dense cover of vegetation.

  • HEIRLOOM TOMATOES

    HEIRLOOM TOMATOES: General information- Solanum lycopersicum, Tomato Solanaceae family, Sunlight: full sun. Soil conditions: well-drained, fertile soil, high in organic matter. Tomatoes come in both determinate (bush) varieties and indeterminate (climbing) varieties.

  • HERBS & SPICES – WHAT GOES WITH WHAT FOOD

    Choosing herbs and spices to go with foods. Bay leaf, cayenne, chili, curry, dill, ginger, mustard, paprika, marjoram, oregano, parsley, rosemary, thyme.

  • HIV/AIDS: What Parents Need to Know

    Although children learn about AIDS in school and from their friends, parents have a very important job in helping their children really understand AIDS and how not to get it.

  • HOME ORCHARD PRODUCTION – APPLE, PEAR, AND STONE FRUIT DISEASE MANAGEMENT

    While it is tempting to plant fruit trees and not apply chemical control measures, it is often impractical, and the resulting fruit crop may be disappointing or not result in any harvestable fruit.

  • HOW DOES YOUR LAWN AND LANDSCAPE CARE IMPACT WATER QUALITY

    All living plants return some of this water back into the atmosphere through transpiration. Some groundwater also returns to the surface by flowing down grade to fill a pond, supply a stream or just bubble as a spring. Certain soils allow groundwater to infiltrate deeper into the soil and fill aquifers and deep wells. 

  • HOW PARENTS CAN HELP THEIR KIDS BE SUCCESSFUL IN SCHOOL

    1. Get a plan and stick to it.

    Set a specific “quiet time” every day for homework or general reading. Involve your child in setting the rules for this. Ask your child to come up with three rules 

  • HOW TO SCOUT AND TROUBLESHOOT PROBLEMS IN CROPS

    Gather tools that will help you acquire a sample, cutters, small shovel, hand lens, plastic bags, marker, etc. Go to the field with an open mind and investigate all possibilities!

  • HOW TO TAKE A SOIL SAMPLE?

    Soil tests such as those conducted by the University of Delaware Soil Testing Laboratory will help you to develop and maintain more productive soil by providing more information about the fertility status of your soil. This helps you to select the proper lining and fertilization program so that you can obtain optimal growth of lawn, garden and ornamental plants.

  • HUMAN BENEFITS OF GREEN SPACES

    Interaction with gardens and natural spaces offers a variety of mental, physical and social benefits for humans, ranging from stress reduction, quicker healing, and mitigation of Attention Deficit Disorder in children to decreasing crime and air pollution. 

  • Hand Washing Procedures

    Use the double hand wash method to reduce disease-causing (pathogenic) organisms on hands. The steps include: Wet hands under hot, flowing water (100° F to 120° F, 2 gallons per minute). Apply sufficient soap to develop a good lather. (Refrain from using antibacterial soaps.)

  • Healthy Familes, Healthy Teens

    When you bring up the subject of teenagers in a room full of parents, there’s usually a group groan. People roll their eyes and laugh nervously. Almost everyone thinks about this stage with fear and trepidation.

  • Help Your Child Become a Great Reader

    Well, yes and no. For some children, the school reading program doesn’t succeed as well as we’d like. And for every child, parents can make a big difference in helping children learn to read better.

  • Helping Your Child Become a Good Money Manager

    Researchers know that strong families feel “in control” of their finances. Some very rich families feel “out of control,” and some very poor families have this vital feeling of being “in control.” Help your children learn how to be “in control” of their spending.

  • Helping Your Child Manage Money

    Money is necessary to meet needs and wants in our society and everyone needs money management skills. These skills are cultivated out of the ideas, attitudes, habits and values we acquire about money as we grow up.

  • How to Dispute Credit Report Errors

    Your credit report contains important information about you. It generally includes facts about where you work and live and your bill-paying habits. It also may state whether you've been sued or arrested or have filed for bankruptcy. 

  • IDENTIFYING NUTRIENT DEFICIENCIES IN ORNAMENTAL PLANT

    Healthy plant growth and reproduction requires 17 nutrients. Of these, carbon (C), oxygen (O) and hydrogen (H) are derived mainly from the atmosphere and water. Soil minerals and/or soil organic matter are the main source of the remaining essential nutrients. 

  • IN-HOUSE WINDROW COMPOSTING AND ITS EFFECTS ON FOODBORNE PATHOGENS

    Control of foodborne pathogens at the farm is a growing concern that is being addressed in the industry. Several methods have shown varying effectiveness in reducing pathogens on the farm, one of which is in-house windrow composting.

  • INSECTICIDES FOR APHID CONTROL ON VEGETABLES

    Insecticide efficacy rankings based on consensus of Northeast, Mid-Atlantic, and Southern entomologists.

  • It's Worth Your Time to Review What's in Your Credit File

    An image of a credit report with 680 and a pencil pointing to a specific point on the report.

  • KALE

    KALE: General information- Brassica oleracea var. acephala, Brassicaceae family, full sun to part shade. Prefers full sun in spring and fall, but can benefit from light shade during hot weather. Prefers well-drained, fertile soil high in organic matter. Needs plentiful, consistent moisture.

  • KEEP FOOD SAFE – GUIDE TO REFRIGERATOR STORAGE PERIODS

    When storing foods in your refrigerator, use foil, plastic bags and wraps, or airtight containers. Clean refrigerators regularly to reduce food odors. Remove spoiled foods immediately so decay cannot pass to other foods.

  • KEEP FOOD SAFE – IT'S IN YOUR HANDS

    Foodborne illness can be the result of biological, chemical, or physical hazards.  Chemical hazards (for example, pesticides, food additives, or environmental contaminants, such as lead or mercury) often receive considerable public attention. 

  • KISSING BUGS

    Kissing bugs are insects that feed on blood from animals and people. They are native to Delaware and live in wooded areas.

  • KOHLRABI

    KOHLRABI: General information- Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes(Kohlrabi) Brassicaceae Family, full sun. Tolerates light shade. Prefers well-drained, fertile soil high in organic matter.

  • Keep Food Safe for Seniors

    Foodborne Illness: Are You at Risk? When you experience diarrhea, vomiting, an upset stomach, fever or stomach cramps, you may think you have the flu.  But the real culprit may be harmful microorganisms called pathogens in the food you ate a few hours, a week, or even a month ago.

  • Knee Deep in Debt

    Having trouble paying your bills? Getting dunning notices from creditors? Are your accounts being turned over to debt collectors? Are you worried about losing your home or your car?

  • LARGE PLOT TEST-DEMONSTRATIONS FOR EVALUATING WEED CONTROL

    Growers, consultants, and the agribusiness industry often ask if they can benefit from changes in their weed management practices, such as the use of a different herbicide, altering the rate of the existing herbicide, incorporating cover crops, or using a new type of cultivator. Comparing changes on separate farms, or even separating fields into halves, often can lead to erroneous conclusions because of the variations within and between fields.

  • LAVENDER

    LAVENDER: General information- Lavandula angustifolia, Lamiaceae family, full sun, low fertility, well-drained soil. Grows well in a container. Perennial

  • LAWN MANAGEMENT FOR WATER CONSERVATION

    When designing a landscape, consider alternatives to turf. Use attractive, low-maintenance ground covers, tree and shrub plantings and water-permeable paving. A major benefit of turf is that it will take traffic. Take advantage of that and install turf where it will be used as a play area.

  • LEAF LETTUCE

    • Scientific Name: Lactuca sativa
    • Family: Asteraceae
    • Cool season
    • Planting Window:
      • Spring: mid-March to late April
  • LEAF SPOT DISEASES IN GARDEN TOMATOES

    Foliar leaf spot diseases and blights of tomato plants are common problems for tomato growers in Delaware and the Mid-Atlantic States. Pathogens survive in plant debris or weed hosts, and are favored by humid weather and moderate temperatures.

  • LEEKS

    LEEKS: General information- Allium ampeloprasum, Allium family, full sun, well drained soil, high in organic matter. Best grown as a transplant. Blanch with soil to increase white shanks.

  • LET'S TALK TURKEY

    All poultry, including turkey, is highly perishable.  To ensure a safe product, proper handling and storage are important.  Buy poultry only from freezer, refrigerator or chill cases.  What are recommended ways of handling turkey?  Let’s consider some questions frequently asked about preparing, cooking and keeping turkeys.

  • LETTUCE

    LETTUCE: General information- Lactuca saliva, Asteraceae family, full sun but can tolerate some shade, especially in the summer, moist, well-drained soil. Butterhead, Crisphead, Romaine, Looseleaf varieties.

  • LEVELING UP POULTRY BIOSECURITY: FOOTWEAR

    Dedicated footwear or disposable boots for each poultry house is best for biosecurity. Disposable boots can be purchased online or at local farm supply stores.

  • LIMA BEAN FIELDS INFESTED WITH ALS-RESISTANT PIGWEED IN DELAWARE

    Pigweed is one of the most wide-spread weed species in Delaware and the region, infesting vegetable crops as well as grain crops. Pigweed is capable of quickly becoming the dominant species in a field due to its high seed output, producing over 100,000 seeds per plant.

  • LIMA BEANS

    LIMA BEANS: General information- Phaseolus lunatus, Lima Bean, Fabaceae family, full sun. Soil conditions: loose, evenly moist, well drained soil. Bush and pole varieties.

  • LITTER AMENDMENTS: THEIR ROLE AND USE

    The use of litter treatments has become an important tool in the management of built-up litter. Because litter treatments cover a broad range of products and functions, thefollowing discussion is limited to those whose primary function is controlling ammoniavolatilization from poultry litter.

  • LITTER MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES ON NEW POULTRY FARMS

    Commercial poultry operations are required to handle poultry litter in a way that minimizes environmental impact, while also complying with State and Federal regulations. The use of permanent manure storage structures is supported by years of scientific data. 

  • LIVABLE LAWNS - MANAGING A HEALTHY LAWN

    The benefits of a healthy, attractive lawn are many and diverse. Lawns prevent erosion, provide cooling, re­duce dust and mud, remove pollut­ants from the environment, absorb CO2 and produce 02 Lawns provide a safe, comfortable surface for many athletic and social activities. Ar­eas of lawn, whether large or small, help bring green to the urban envi­ronment.

  • LIVABLE PLANTS FOR THE HOME LANDSCAPE

    This brochure provides plant suggestions that can help gardeners create diverse landscape plantings with native and non-invasive exotic plants. 

  • LIVEABLE ECOSYTEMS: A MODEL FOR SUBURBIA

    What is a suburban livable ecosystem? It’s a landscape that takes advantage of natural processes while providing tangible benefits to its owner. 

  • Lady Beetle

    Lady Beetle Overview

    • In the order Coleoptera

    • Beneficial predators

    • Usually red/orange with black spots

  • MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR UTILIZING HARDWOOD SAWDUST AS POULTRY BEDDING

    Many concentrated poultry-producing areas of the USA including the Delmarva Peninsula have shortages of quality pine-base bedding materials. Yet, there are often ample supplies of cost-effective hardwood sawdust (HW) that could supplement this deficit. However, the poultry industry has been reluctant to use HW due to periodic mold-induced respiratory health concerns.

  • MANAGING BUILT UP LITTER

    Farm-related factors that contribute to poor litter conditions may include; wet or poor bedding quality, inadequate litter depth, poor site drainage, house condensation problems, improper management of the drinkers, cooling and ventilation systems, and not maintaining uniform bird density in houses. 

  • MANAGING FALL-PLANTED COVER CROPS FOR MAXIMUM BENEFIT

    Cover crops play an important role in protecting the soil and water when main crops like corn or soybean are not actively growing. The National Conservation Service promoted the use of cover crops during the Dust Bowl crisis of the 1930s, to protect soils from erosion.

  • MEASUREMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF SOIL PH FOR CROP PRODUCTION IN DELAWARE

    The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14; a pH value of 7 is considered neutral, while pH values less than 7 are acidic, and pH values greater than 7 are alkaline. The pH values of soil usually range from pH 4.0 to pH 8.0; higher or lower pH values are very rare and are normally found only in severely disturbed soils or in soils that have been amended with some type of acidic or alkaline material.

  • MELON

    MELON: General information- Cucumis melo, Melon, Cucurbitaceae family. Sunlight: full sun. Soil conditions: fertile, well-drained soil.Can be grown on a trellis.

  • MINT

    MINT: General information- Mentha sp., Mint, Lamiaceae family, Sunlight: full sun to part shade. Soil conditions: rich, moist, well-drained soil. Grows well in a container. Perennial, wide spreading, can become invasive.

  • MULBERRY WEED (FATOUA VILLOSA)

    Mulberry Weed or hairy crabweed (Fatoua villosa) (Thunberg) Nakai is an invasive exotic Asian species from the Mulberry family (Moraceae).  First reported in Louisiana in 1964 by J.W. 

  • Making Decisions

    Children can learn to make healthy decisions with support from their parents. Parents can help children learn to make decisions by working together with them rather than always being in total control.

     

  • Making the Best of the School Year

    Children who are given the basics — love, healthy food, enough sleep, clothing, a safe and healthy home — have a natural head start at school.

  • Managing Credit

    The use of consumer credit has become a major component in the management of money. Consumer credit should be used responsibly and effectively.

  • Maximizing the Potential of Poultry Litter as a Valuable Nutrient Source for Sustainable Crop Production

    The Delmarva Peninsula stands out as a prominent hub for broiler production, accounting for more than 596 million broilers in 2022 (Delaware Chicken Association, 2023). In 2022, Delaware raised approximately 234 million broilers, with a production value of 1.53 billion U.S. dollars (USDA NASS, 2023).

  • NATIVE PLANTS FOR DELAWARE LANDSCAPES

    Native plants are indigenous to a particular region and provide an essential foundation to support wildlife habitats for native insects and birds. Well-adapted to the local habitat, native plants grow using less water and fewer pesticide applications growing with minimum maintenance. 

  • NEMATODE SOIL SAMPLING IN SOYBEANS

    When observing unexplained stunting, wilting, or death in crops. When planting into a field with a history of nematodes. In areas with prior poor performance.

  • NITROGEN CYCLING IN AGRICULTURE

    Understanding how N reacts in the landscape can help us maximize plant growth and crop yields, while minimizing harmful losses of N to the environment. This document helps agricultural producers understand how N interacts in the environment through the N cycle to guide maintenance and sustainability of agricultural crop production.

  • NITROGEN MANAGEMENT FOR CORN IN DELAWARE: THE PRE-SIDEDRESS NITRATE TEST

    Unlike other nutrients, such as potassium or phosphorus, the nitrogen (N) requirement of corn cannot normally be met by N found in the soil. Consequently, most of the N needed by corn is supplied by applications of commercial fertilizers or manures unless crop rotations include legumes (e.g., alfalfa, clover, hairy vetch, soybeans), where N available from legume residues can often provide a significant percentage of corn’s N requirement.

  • NITROGEN MANAGEMENT FOR CORN IN DELAWARE: THE PRE-SIDEDRESS NITRATE TEST

    Historically, soil tests for N could not reliably identify the amount of N available to corn from soil organic matter, past applications of animal manures, crop residues, or previous applications of N fertilizers. Therefore, N recommendations for corn (and other crops) were based solely on expected crop yield.

  • NITROGEN MANAGEMENT FOR SOYBEANS

    Soybean is second most widely produced crop in DE, ranking just behind corn for grain. In 2017, approximately 160,000 acres of soybeans were produced in Delaware with an average yield of 51 bu/ac.

  • NITROGEN REMOVAL BY DELAWARE CROPS

    The amount of nitrogen (N) removed by the harvested portion of the crop is needed to develop nutrient balances. However, N removal by crops can vary considerably from field-to-field and year-to-year. 

  • NON-CHEMICAL PEST CONTROL OPTIONS FOR MANAGING INSECT PESTS ON BEANS

    July and August in the vegetable garden typically bring bountiful harvests of colorful vegetables. These are also the months when insect pests can really make their presence known, with plant and fruit damage becoming increasingly noticeable. 

  • NON-CHEMICAL PEST CONTROL OPTIONS FOR MANAGING INSECT PESTS ON BRASSICAS

    July and August in the vegetable garden typically bring bountiful harvests of colorful vegetables. These are also the months when insect pests can really make their presence known, with plant and fruit damage becoming increasingly noticeable. 

  • NON-CHEMICAL PEST CONTROL OPTIONS FOR MANAGING INSECT PESTS ON CUCURBITS

    July and August in the vegetable garden typically bring bountiful harvests of colorful vegetables. These are also the months when insect pests can really make their presence known, with plant and fruit damage becoming increasingly noticeable. 

  • NON-CHEMICAL PEST CONTROL OPTIONS FOR MANAGING INSECT PESTS ON SOLANACEOUS PLANTS

    July and August in the vegetable garden typically bring bountiful harvests of colorful vegetables. These are also the months when insect pests can really make their presence known, with plant and fruit damage becoming increasingly noticeable. 

  • NORTHERN CORN LEAF BLIGHT

    Northern corn leaf blight (NCLB) is a disease of corn caused by the fungus, Exserohilum turcicum. Severe outbreaks of the disease can cause up to 30-50% yield loss in dent corn if the disease is established before tassel [1]. NCLB also causes significant reduction in quality in sweet corn and silage corn. This publication will outline how to identify the disease, review its lifecycle, as well as appropriate management options for growers.

  • NUTRIENT RECOMMENDATIONS

    Nutrient recommendations are based upon soil test calibration studies that relate the probability of a profitable plant response to nutrient addition to the plant nutrient concentration in the soil as measured by a soil test.

  • NUTRITION: FATS

    Despite its bad reputation, some fat is needed in our diet.  Fats serve many functions in the body.  In addition to providing more than twice the energy supplied by carbohydrates and proteins and supplying essential fatty acids, fats serve as carriers for fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K) and as parts of cell membranes.

  • NUTRITION: WHAT IS CHOLESTEROL?

    Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance found in cells of humans and animals.  It can come from the foods we eat, but the body also makes cholesterol.  Although we often hear about ways to reduce blood cholesterol levels, cholesterol is one of many chemicals created and used by the body. 

  • OAK WILT

    Oak wilt is a serious, fatal disease of oak trees, caused by the fungus Bretziella fagacearum, formerly Ceratocystis fagacearum. It was first detected in Wisconsin in 1944 and has spread eastward in the U.S.

  • ONION

    Onion: 

    • Scientific Name: Allium cepa
      • Family: Alliaceae, Amaryllidaceae
    • Cool season
    • Planting Window: mid-March to mid-April
    • pH = 5.5-7.0
  • ONIONS

    ONIONS: General information- Allium cepa, Onion, Amaryllidaceae family, Sunlight: full sun. Soil conditions: Well-drained, fertile soil. Can be planted from seeds, sets, and transplants. Onion bulbing is triggered by day length. Short Day varieties form bulbs when day length reaches 10 hours.

  • OPEN KETTLE CANNING IS NO LONGER SAFE

    Since the late 1980’s we have been teaching that open kettle canning is no longer safe. Open kettle canning involves heating the food to boiling, pouring it into the jars, applying lids, and allowing the heat of the jar to cause the lid to seal. Many years ago, it was commonly used for pickles, jams and jellies, and sometimes used for tomatoes and applesauce.

  • OREGANO

    OREGANO: General information- Origanum vulgare, Oregano, Lamiaceae family, Sunlight: full sun. Soil conditions: light, moderately fertile, well-drained soil. Can thrive in areas with tough growing conditions. Grows well in a container. Perennial

  • PARSLEY

    PARSLEY: General information- Petroselinum crispum, Parsley, Apiaceae family, Sunlight: Full sun. Soil conditions: well-drained soil, high in organic matter. Grows well in a container. Biennial

  • PASTE TOMATOES

    PASTE TOMATOES: General information- Solanum lycopersicum, Tomato, Solanaceae family. Sunlight: full sun. Soil conditions: well-drained, fertile soil, high in organic matter. Tomatoes come in both determinate (bush) varieties and indeterminate (climbing) varieties.

  • PEAS

    PEAS: General information- Pisum sativum (Peas) Fabaceae Family (Legume) Sunlight: full sun. Soil conditions: fertile, well drained soil. Can tolerate light frost. Bush and vining varieties.

  • PEPPERS

    PEPPERS: General information- Capsicum annuum, Pepper, Solanaceae family, Sunlight: Full sun. Soil conditions: well-drained fertile soil. Bell (pictured here), sweet, and hot varieties.

  • PERMEABLE VS. IMPERMEABLE SURFACES

    Permeable surfaces (also known as porous or pervious surfaces) allow water to percolate into the soil to filter out pollutants and recharge the water table. Impermeable/impervious surfaces are solid surfaces that don’t allow water to penetrate, forcing it to run off.

  • PHOSPHOROUS IN POULTRY LITTER: GUIDELINES FROM THE UNIVERSITY OF DELAWARE

    Delaware produces more than 250 million broiler chickens each year, making poultry production the single greatest contributor to state agricultural receipts. It also means that about 280,000 tons of poultry litter (manure and bedding material) are produced annually.

  • PHOSPHORUS CYCLING IN AGRICULTURE

    Crops often receive beneficial nutrients such as phosphorus (P) from manure and/or commercial fertilizer applications. However, the Delaware Nutrient Management Law limits the amount of P that can be applied to many agricultural soils in Delaware. 

  • PHOSPHORUS MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR DELAWARE’S AGRICULTURAL SOILS: THE PHOSPHORUS SITE INDEX

    Long-term use of fertilizer and manure nutrients on the Delmarva Peninsula has led to an enrichment of agricultural soils with phosphorus (P). Consequently, many soils in Delaware are now considered high or excessive in soil test P (Fig. 1). In some situations, high P soils contribute to eutrophication of surface waters; therefore, P management strategies that maintain both agricultural profitability and environmental quality are necessary. 

  • PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL BY DELAWARE CROPS

    In Delaware, applications of phosphorus to “high P” soils (soil test P ≥ 150 FIV, as defined by the Delaware Nutrient Management Commission) cannot exceed a three-year crop removal rate unless alternative P management strategies (i.e. N-based management during one or more years of a crop rotation) are permitted based on results of a P Site Index.

  • PHYSODERMA BROWN SPOT

    Physoderma brown spot is caused by the fungal pathogen Physodermamaydis. Infection occurs in the leaf whorl when water has been present for an extended, warm period. Disease is limited and does not typically cause economic loss in the Mid-Atlantic.

  • PLANT SELECTION FOR WATER CONSERVATION

    Plant selection is one of the most important factors in designing a successful drought-tolerant landscape. Along with concern about plant size, texture, color and so on, we must be concerned about how a plant will perform from an ecological and horticultural standpoint.

  • PLANTS FOR A LIVABLE DELAWARE

    This series of brochures were developed to educate Delawareans about the problem of invasive plants in the landscape.  

  • POTATOES

    POTATOES: General information- Solanum tuberosum, Potato, Solanaceae family, Sunlight: full sun. Soil conditions: prefers well-drained, light, deep, loose soil, high in organic matter.

  • POWDERY MILDEW ON SMALL GRAINS

    Powdery Mildew (PM) is a fungal leaf disease caused by Blumeria graminis , which can reduce grain yield and quality in cereal crops.

  • PREVENTING EROSION

    A crucial role of sustainable sites is to reduce erosion, the physical wear of soil and surface rocks by water and wind. Eroded soil, called sediment, is the number one pollutant of our waterways.

  • PROFESSIONAL WELLNESS

    Professionally, you should have fulfillment in your job. There is also a balance between work and leisure. This may include beliefs and values surrounding money/education are harmonious with behavior, having a balance between work/school and other areas of life, having financial/educational plans for the future.

  • PROVISIONAL SEASHORE MALLOW PLANTING, GROWING, AND HARVESTING PROTOCOL

    Background - We’ve prepared the seed bed both by tilling and by no-till using herbicides (glyphosate and gramoxone) to kill the weeds. Where we have nonsaline soil, weeds are a problem since we do not have herbicide-ready seashore mallow. 

  • PRUNING EVERGREENS

    Pruning is an important maintenance practice. Although necessary, pruning can be kept to a minimum by the wise use and proper placement of plant materials in the landscape. Evergreen plants can be divided into two broad categories: (1) Narrowleaf (needled) evergreens such as pines, junipers, yews, and (2) Broadleaf evergreens like rhododendrons, hollies, boxwood.

  • PRUNING WOODY PLANTS

    Good pruning is necessary to preserve the general attractiveness of your landscape and to keep your ornamental plants healthy. Although forest trees grow quite well with only nature’s pruning, landscape trees require a higher level of care to maintain their safety and aesthetics.

  • PURPLE LOOSESTRIFE

    PURPLE LOOSESTRIFE is an herbaceous perennial plant characterized by a four-sided stem and long terminal spikes, each of which are surrounded by dense clusters of pink to magenta flowers. Each flower has 5 to 7 narrow, wrinkled petals. 

  • PYTHIUM ROOT ROT

    Caused by many species of the oomycete pathogen Pythium. Pythiumspecies are favored by periods of extended soil wetness.

  • Payday Loans Equal Costly Cash

    The ads are on the radio, television, the Internet, even in the mail. They refer to payday loans - which come at a very high price.

  • Plant a Row for the Hungry

    Plant-A-Row for the Hungry (PAR) is a people-helping-people program.

  • Pollinators

    What Pollinators Do For Us

    • Pollinators are critical to our food production system

    • More than 100 U.S.-grown crops rely on pollinators

    • The Honey Bee is our primary pollinator

  • Predatory Mites: Mite-ier Than Other Pest Controls!

    Written by: Emma Giancola- Ornamental Extension Entomology Intern
    Brian Kunkel- Ornamentals IPM Extension Specialist University of Delaware

  • Prevention Pays

    What are the characteristics of youth who are most and least at-risk of becoming involved with drugs and other risky activities? What can parents do to help their kids stay on a good path?

  • Privacy Choices for your Personal Financial Information

    Financial companies share information for many reasons: to offer you more services, to introduce new products, and to profit from the information they have about you.

  • RADISH

    RADISH: General information- Raphanus sativus (Radish) Brassicaceae family, Sunlight: full sun to part shade. Soil Conditions: requires well-drained soil. Needs consistent moisture. Grows well in container.

  • RADISHES

    Radishes: 

    • cientific Name: Raphanus sativus
      • Family: Brassica
    • Cool season
    • Planting Window:
      • Spring: mid-March to mid-April
      • Fall: mid-August to mid-September
  • RECOMMENDED SOIL TESTING PROCEDURES FOR THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES

    Northeastern Regional Publication No. 493
    3rd Edition- Agricultural Experiment Stations of Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and West Virginia. Prepared by: The Northeast Coordinating Committee for Soil Testing (NECC-1312)

  • RECYCLING LEAVES

    What organic material is full of nutrients, essential for the natural processes of soil rejuvenation, and arrives absolutely free of cost to millions of homeowners every autumn? You guessed it— the colorful liberated leaves of deciduous trees. Recycling leaves offers a great alternative to the environmental and economic expense of removing this resource from your property.

  • REFRIGERATOR & FREEZER STORAGE CHART

    These short but safe time limits will help keep refrigerated food held at 40°F or below from spoiling or becoming dangerous. Purchase the product before “sell-by” or expiration dates...

  • ROOT KNOT NEMATODE IN SOYBEANS

    The root-knot nematode (RKN), specifically the southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita), is a yield-limiting nematode present in many Delaware fields. It is particularly damaging to soybean and can be a chronic pest if not managed properly. 

  • ROSE ROSETTE DISEASE

    ROSE ROSETTE DISEASE (RRD) is specific to Rosa species and is caused by the rose rosette virus, which is carried by a very small eriophyid mite, or graft transmitted. The virus disease is a threat to all cultivated roses, even rose cultivars with some disease resistance to black spot, such as the Knockout Series.

  • ROSEMARY

    ROSEMARY: General information- Salvia rosmarinus, Rosemary, Lamiaceae family. Sunlight: full sun.Soil conditions: loose, well-drained soil. Grows well in a container. Perennial

  • Raising a Non-Violent Child

    If we want our children to be non-violent, we can not use violence to discipline them. Discipline means “to teach.” When we discipline our children we are turning their misbehavior into an opportunity to teach them how we want them to behave.

  • SAFE BROWN BAG LUNCHES

    Use good sanitation and good personal hygiene when preparing food. Use special care with high protein, moist, and low-acid foods.

  • SAGE

    SAGE: General information- Salvia offiinalis, Sage, Lamiaceae family. Sunlight: full sun. Soil conditions: sandy, loamy, well-drained soil. Grows well in a container. Perennial

  • SALT MEASUREMENTS AND SOIL CLASSIFICATIONS (SWI SERIES 2)

    Soils have a natural characteristic called the cation exchange capacity (CEC) that allows them to hold (and exchange) cations (e.g., Ca+2 or Na+). 

  • SANITIZING PRODUCTS AVAILABLE FOR GREENHOUSE NURSERY

    This chart includes information about products and steps you can take to ensure you have a safe and clean greenhouse.

  • SCLEROTINIA STEM BLIGHT (WHITE MOLD) ON SOYBEAN

    Sclerotinia stem blight (SSB) is common on snap and lima beans and appears sporadically in soybeans. SSB is considered a minor disease of soybeans in Delaware but it can cause significant yield loss under the right conditions. This publication will discuss disease identification, disease cycle, and management recommendations for SSB.

  • SELECTING A DRONE FOR CROP SCOUTING

    The drone market targets many different customers, including agricultural professionals. Drone videos and photography allow for a different perspective of the field and have the potential to uncover in-season production issues that scouting may miss. Assessment of crop fields can be made quickly when flying 200-400 feet above the crop.

  • SELECTING PLANT DISEASE SPECIMENS

    Select material showing the symptoms you see. Send several samples showing different stages of disease development. Take samples showing transition areas between healthy and diseased. Dead plants, leaves or branches are generally of little use.

  • SELF-ESTEEM GROWS WITH REALISTIC EXPECTATIONS

    When expectations are realistic, it is easy for a child to experience success and feel personally valuable. On the other hand, when expectations are too high or too rigid, parents often express disappointment in their child’s actions. 

  • SEPTORIA BROWN SPOT IN SOYBEAN

    One of the most common foliar diseases of soybeans. Caused by the fungus Septoria glycines. Present in most fields at some level every year.

  • SEPTORIA NODORUM BLOTCH A.KA. SEPTORIA GLUME BLOTCH

    Parastagonospora nodorum (syn.Septoria nodorum) is a fungal pathogen that can produce symptoms on leaves, stems, glumes, and awns. P. nodorum has a wide host range, which includes wheat species, other cereals, and wild grasses.

  • SLICER TOMATOES

    SLICER TOMATOES: General information- Solanum lycopersicum, Tomato Solanaceae family. Sunlight: full sun. Soil conditions: well-drained, fertile soil, high in organic matter. Tomatoes come in both determinate (bush) varieties and indeterminate (climbing) varieties.

  • SOCIAL WELLNESS

    Social wellness is how we relate and connect to others by engaging in the community and building and being a part of supportive social networks. This may include: being aware of others feelings and responding in an appropriate manner, having people with whom you have a trusting relationship, and being able to set and respect your own and others’ boundaries.

  • SOIL MANAGEMENT OPTIONS BASED ON THE PHOSPHORUS SITE INDEX

    Minimizing nonpoint source pollution of surface waters by P from agricultural cropland requires management practices that control both the supply and transport of soil P. The basic objective of environmentally sound P management is to maintain soil P fertility levels in a range that is optimum, but not excessive, for crop growth while reducing the loss of particulate and soluble P by processes such as erosion, runoff, or drainage. 

  • SOILS AND SALTS (SWI SERIES #1)

    Salts are natural components of soil, surface, and groundwater. They are ionic mineral compounds, which means they bonded by electrostatic attractions between cations (+ charge) and anions (- charge). Some salts, like table salt (NaCl), are highly soluble in water, while others, like the mineral CaCO3 (lime), are less soluble.

  • SOYBEAN CYST NEMATODE

    The soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) is the most significant nematode pest affecting soybeans on Delmarva and in the United States. First detected in Delaware in the fall of 1979, the soybean cyst nematode (SCN) was widespread in Sussex County. Although found in Kent County just a few years later, SCN was not discovered until 1991 in New Castle County in the southwest corner near Clayton. 

  • SOYBEAN CYST NEMATODE (Part 2)

    Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN) is the most yield limiting pathogen of soybeans across the US. Often referred to as a “silent yield robber”, SCN may be present and reducing yield without notable aboveground symptoms

  • SOYBEAN SEVERE STUNT VIRUS

    Soybean severe stunt virus (SSSV) is a putative neopvirus causing a soilborne disease of soybeans in Delaware first described in 1988.

  • SPECIAL PROCEDURES FOR THE IMMUNE-COMPROMISED

    Foodborne illness is never pleasant, but it can be especially devastating for anyone with a weakened immune system. Special precautions should be taken to protect anyone who is susceptible to foodborne illness.

  • STALK ROTS ON CORN

    Stalk rots are one of the most significant set of diseases on corn.  These diseases are insidious, and often growers are unaware of their effects until harvest.  Low levels of stalk rot occur in nearly every corn field in Delaware, and severity and incidence varies from year to year. 

  • SUCCESSFULLY ESTABLISHING MEADOWS FROM SEED IN DELAWARE AND THE MID-ATLANTIC

    Identifying and understanding the dynamics of the meadow site is crucial for success. Sites should have at least 6 hours of sun each day. Meadows can be found in a variety of soil types and are often adapted to varying levels of soil moisture, but the plants found in these conditions will differ. Select native or adapted plant species that fit the sunlight and soil moisture conditions of the site. 

  • SUMMER SQUASH

    Summer Squash: General information- Cucurbita pepo, Summer Squash, Cucurbitaceae family, Sunlight: full sun. Soil Conditions: requires well-drained soil, high fertility. Grows well in container.

  • SUSTAINABLE LANDSCAPE MATERIALS AND PRACTICES

    A sustainable site incorporates renewable, local, and low-energy input landscape materials and avoids materials, products, and practices that are harmful to the environment.

  • SWEET CORN TOLERANCE TO LAUDIS AND IMPACT

    Callisto, Impact, and Laudis are all similar herbicides (HPPD-inhibiting herbicides [Group 27]) and all are labeled for use in sweet corn. Previously, sweet corn hybrids have had limited evaluation to determine tolerance to Impact and Laudis.

  • SWEET POTATOES

    SWEET POTATOES: General information- pomoea batatas, Sweet Potato, Convolvulaceae family. Sunlight: full sun. Soil conditions: well-drained, loose soil. Grown from slips.

  • SWISS CHARD

    SWISS CHARD: General Information- Swiss Chard: Beta vulgaris var. cicla (Chenopodiaceae) Sunlight: full Sun to part shade. Soil conditions: requires well-drained soil. Prefers deep, loose, fertile soil, high in organic matter. Harvest outer leaves, avoiding center crown, for continued production.

  • Saving and Investing

    Saving is essential to financial well-being. Some people save easily, while for others, it is a serious challenge. Either way, it is a key step to financial security in the short-term and the long term. Investing and planning for future goals like retirement or health care later in life are essential for financial security. Don't wait; start NOW!

  • Sea Level Rise

    All across the world, sea levels are expected to rise in response to climate change. However, for the state of Delaware, sea level rise is especially concerning due to the state’s flat topography, low mean elevation, and heavy reliance on large scale investments in coastal activities, like tourism and infrastructure development.

  • Setting Limits

    Youth who stay away from risky behaviors tend to have parents who set clear limits for behavior. These parents usually have rules about homework, television use, curfew, drugs and alcohol.

  • Shopping for Credit

    Smart consumers comparison shop for credit, whether they're looking for a mortgage, an auto loan, or a credit card. Comparison-shopping is important because it could save you money.

  • Soil Insect Management in Field Corn

    Five major soil insects can be found in corn fields: seed corn maggot, white grubs, wireworms, cutworms and rootworms. Corn rootworm populations have increased in continuous corn production areas of New Castle and northern Kent counties. 

  • Spiders and Why You Want Them Around

    Common Name: Grass Spider

    Scientific Name: Agelenopsis

    Characteristics:

    • Cave-like web

    • Fast speed

    • Yellowish-brown color.

  • Steps for Developing a Grain Marketing Plan

    Developing a grain marketing plan can be difficult, especially when grain market prices are constantly changing and going through periods of extreme volatility like what we’ve seen in the past two years. 

  • Steps to Building Self-Esteem

    At one time or another most parents ask themselves: "What can I do to help my child feel better about himself...to feel more confident...to view life positively?"

  • Stress is Gonna Get You if You Don't Watch Out

    Is stress getting to you? Here are some clues research gives us about stress and the characteristics of good stress managers.

  • Surviving a Family Crisis

    A family crisis occurs when a family has to change. It is a turning point: things will either get better, or they will get worse. Sometimes, day-to-day hassles can pile up and cause a stress overload.

  • TALKING WITH YOUR PRETEEN ABOUT SEXUALITY

    Preteen children continue to define their values, beliefs and knowledge about sexuality. Giving accurate facts and openly discussing their questions and concerns can help teens and preteens develop healthy and responsible sexual attitudes.

  • TEEN COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

    Most adults recognize that teens have better thinking skills than younger children. These advances in thinking can be divided into several areas: Developing advanced reasoning skills...

  • TEEN SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    There are five major social and emotional issues that teens deal with during their adolescent years. These include: Establishing an identity. This has been called one of the most important tasks of adolescents.

  • TEMPORARY FIELD STORAGE OF POULTRY LITTER

    Cost-effective, practical, and environmentally sound best management practices (BMPs) for poultry litter management are needed to reduce nutrient losses to the environment during storage, handling, and land application of poultry litter. These practices help Delaware meet water quality standards and keep poultry growers competitive in national and international markets.

  • TEMPORARY MORTALITY MANAGEMENT ON NEW POULTRY FARMS

    Commercial poultry operations are required to implement mortality management practices to comply with State and Federal regulations. New operations are unable to apply for financial assistance to offset the costs of establishing permanent mortality management structures (e.g., composting units, mortality freezers) until they are actively raising chickens. 

  • THE "NEW" COMPANION PLANTING: ADDING DIVERSITY TO THE GARDEN

    Do tomatoes love basil but hate brussels sprouts? Traditional companion planting, which involves planting different types of plants together or in close proximity, makes many such statements, often based on little more than folklore.

  • THE IMPACTS OF NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS FROM AGRICULTURE ON DELAWARE’S WATER QUALITY

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are essential nutrients for all living organisms.  Soil, fertilizer, and manure are all sources of N and P to growing crops.  Atmospheric deposition (the air we breathe is mostly N gas) and irrigation water are also N sources.  If not managed efficiently, much of the N and P applied to and present in agricultural systems can be lost to the environment.

  • THOUSAND CANKERS DISEASE OF WALNUT

    Thousand cankers disease (TCD) of walnut has been detected in Maryland and Pennsylvania, so a detection is possible in Delaware this season. The disease caused by a fungus and carried by the very small walnut twig beetle may be fatal to mature walnut trees in our area.

  • THYME

    THYME: General information- Thymus vulgaris, Thyme, Lamiaceae family Sunlight: full sun. Soil conditions: light, well-drained soil. Grows well in a container. Perennial

  • TOMATO FACTS AND RECIPES

    Skin should appear deep, bright red (except heirloom tomatoes have different colors), without blemishes or bruises or discoloration. Feel: dense, firm, but not too hard; and without any soft spots. Smell: should have a strong, sweet, earthy odor by the stem.

  • TOMATOES

    Tomatoes: 

    • Scientific Name: Lycopersicon lycopersicum
      • Family: Solanaceae
    • Warm season
    • Planting Window:
      • Start seeds indoors, under lights in mid-March 8 weeks prior to transplanting around mid-May
  • TREES FOR DELAWARE

    Trees are important to people. Research shows that access to nature plays a significant role in life satisfaction. The most preferred scenes are ones in which nature is dominant, where there is a smooth ground texture and where trees help define the depth of the scene.

  • TURFGRASS DISEASE: BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR DELAWARE

    In Delaware, turfgrass diseases are caused by pathogenic fungi and microbes that infect the leaves, stems, and roots of turf type grass plants. With infection, grasses may show symptoms such as leaf spots, mildew or mold, or patchy dead areas.

  • TURFGRASS MADNESS: REASONS TO REDUCE THE LAWN IN YOUR LANDSCAPE

    Frequent and often costly maintenance is needed to keep turf grass looking its best. During peak growing months, a single lawn may require mowing more than once a week. During periods of drought, irrigation may be required to keep a lawn from going dormant. Yearly fertilizer is usually recommended for encouraging lush growth.

  • TURFGRASS SELECTIONS FOR DELAWARE

    Turfgrasses are divided into two categories based on their climate adaptation.  Cool-season grasses grow best in the spring and fall, with optimum growth when the temperature is between 60 and 75 degrees Fahrenheit.  Warm-season grasses grow best in the summer, with optimum growth at 80-90 degrees Fahrenheit. 

  • TURNIPS

    TURNIPS: General information- Brassica rapa, Turnip, Brasssicaceae family (Mustards) Sunlight: full sun. Can tolerate some shade. Soil Conditions: loose, fertile soil with good drainage. Roots and leaves can be eaten.

  • TWO SPOTTED SPIDER MITE

    The twospotted spider mite (TSSM) is a plant-feeding mite that is an extremely widespread pest affecting nearly all crop plants (over 1000 plant species). TSSM is very small in size and requires magnification to see clearly. 

  • TYPES OF DRONES FOR FIELD CROP PRODUCTION

    As an emerging technology for farmers, drone terminology may cause confusion. However, the practical use of drones and sensors is fairly straightforward. 

  • Talking About Rules

    To help children learn about rules the following steps may be helpful: Identify what is expected.

  • Teaching Your Child to do the Right Thing

    The goals of parenting center around: Teaching our children how to behave well, teaching them how to be responsible for themselves.

  • Teen Growth and Development

    Adolescence is a time of many transitions for teens and their families. To ensure that teens and adults navigate these transitions successfully, it is important for everyone to understand: What is happening to the teen physically, cognitively, and socially?

  • The Tale of Family Meetings

    Ideas For Family Meetings: Family Time together can be a good time for all! A family meeting can be a time to have fun together. 

  • UNDERSTANDING THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE DELAWARE NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT LAW

    The Delaware Nutrient Management Law was passed in 1999 in response to continued water quality issues in Delaware. The purpose of the Delaware Nutrient Management Law is to: Establish a certification program that encourages the implementation of best management practices in the generation, handling and land application of nutrients.

  • UNDERSTANDING THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE DELAWARE NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT LAW

    The Delaware Nutrient Management Law was passed in 1999 in response to continued water quality issues in Delaware. The purpose of the Delaware Nutrient Management Law is to establish a certification program that encourages the implementation of best management practices in the generation, handling and land application of nutrients.

  • USING HERBS AND SPICES

    Although spices and herbs have been used since ancient times, they are playing a new and important role in modern food preparation.  They not only add unique flavors to our food, but contribute color and variety as well.  Certain spices and herbs used alone, or in blends, can replace or reduce salt and sugar in foods.

  • Understanding Climate Change

    In order to understand climate change, one must first familiarize themselves with Earth’s climate system, which is comprised of the five following components...

  • Understanding Teens

    It’s not easy being a parent! As children grow into their teens, every family goes through stress and conflict. It’s a normal part of growing up. Understanding the changes your child is going through makes it easier to be a positive parent.

  • Utilizing Bundling Strategies to Increase Sales Revenue

    Direct-to-consumer marketing often involves selling various products that have both high profit margins and low profit margins. A useful pricing strategy to promote sales of both high profit margin items and low profit margin items is to use bundling strategies. 

  • VEGETABLE GARDENING BASICS

    Plan and put your garden on paper first and record any planting changes. If this is not the first time gardening in this spot, use last year’s garden plan as a guide to place this year’s crops.

  • WATER QUALITY TRENDS IN DELAWARE AND THE REGION

    Delaware is a very well monitored state.  Delaware's Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control (DNREC) maintains approximately 145 stream sampling stations where grab samples are collected at least every other month and several additional sites collect data more frequently.

  • WATERMELON

    WATERMELON: General information- Citrullus lanatus, Watermelon, Cucurbitaceae family. Sunlight: full sun. Soil conditions: well drained, fertile soil. Heat loving, vining plant.

  • WATERSHEDS: UNDERSTANDING TOTAL MAXIMUM DAILY LOADS (TMDLS)

    The 1972 Federal Clean Water Act (CWA) contains a series of requirements for state environmental agencies to protect and restore the quality and health of U.S. waters with the goal of achieving fishable and swimmable status.  This fact sheet describes those CWA requirements and how they are implemented in Delaware.

  • WEED CONTROL IN TURF

    Your lawn may grow more than the beautiful grass you intended.  It may also grow weeds, which prevent your lawn from looking its best. In addition to reducing the aesthetics of your lawn, weeds compete with the desired turfgrass for water, nutrients, and light.  If you don’t control weeds, your lawn will deteriorate over time.

  • WHEN A FAMILY BREAKS UP: DIVORCE AND SEPARATION

    Deciding to divorce or separate is a difficult decision for parents. Although you may hear that people divorce  too easily, most parents do not come to the decision to separate or divorce easily. When people choose to marry they are committing to a life together and most never think they will separate or divorce.

  • WHEN THE POWER IS OUT

    Bacteria that cause foodborne illness multiply rapidly on food kept at room temperature for more than 2 hours. Do not rely on the appearance or odor to determine if the food is safe. This guide tells you how long food stays cold when the power goes off to help you decide what to salvage and what to discard.

  • WINTER GRAIN MITE MANAGEMENT IN SMALL GRAINS

    The winter grain mite (WGM), as its name implies, is a cool season pest of small grains and orchard grass. 

  • WINTER SQUASH

    WINTER SQUASH: General information - Cucurbita maxima, Winter Squash, Cucurbitaceae Family, Sunlight: full sun. Soil Conditions: requires well-drained soil, high fertility.

  • Washing Produce

    Eating a variety of fresh fruits and vegetables is healthy and adds color, texture and flavor to our diet.  Recent illnesses have been traced to eating raw fruits and vegetables containing harmful disease-causing microorganisms. 

  • Where am I going to find $2000?

    Many people would like to save or invest more money but don't. They believe they have too many expenses or debts. Saving or investing $2,000 sounds great, but where is the money going to come from? For many people, it's going to come from reducing household expenses. Below are a dozen or so ideas. Refinance your mortgage.

  • Where am I going to put $2000?

    Millions of people nationwide are getting richer by increasing their savings and reducing debt. As savings are accumulated consider this "baker's dozen" of saving and investing ideas for ideas about where to put savings. Bank or Credit Union savings account.

  • Winning Ways to Talk to Your Children

    Good communication helps children develop confidence, feelings of self-worth, and good relationships with others. It makes life with them more pleasant and helps them grow into adults who have good feelings about themselves and others.

  • YARD WASTE AND COMPOSTING

    Leave grass clippings on the lawn -If you mow frequently enough (one of the best ways to improve lawn health is to mow frequently), the clippings will just sift into the lawn. They also provide a great source of nitrogen as they decompose, reducing the fertilizer requirement for your lawn by one-third.

  • YOUTH FINANCIAL LITERACY RESOURCES FOR PARENTS

    Building strong financial and consumer skills in youth can start early. Kids as early as 4-6 years old can begin to understand basic concepts. Providing youth with consumer, banking and money management related experiences help them build skills and confidence in the market place. 

  • YOUTH FINANCIAL LITERACY RESOURCES FOR TEACHERS

    Teaching financial and consumer literacy to youth is a priority for Cooperative Extension. We support the following programs: High School Financial Planning Program - Cooperative Extension offers teacher in-service and support for this high school and young adult level hands-on curriculum.

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