Sustainable Production Systems

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The total economic contribution of all categories of agriculture in Delaware is $7.95 billion in industry output and that the agricultural industry contributes $2.5 billion in value-added activity, and $1.6 billion in labor income, supporting 30,000 jobs. There are currently 7.6 billion people in the world and population is estimated to be over 10 billion by 2050. Further increases in agricultural output are essential while maintaining economic and environmental integrity.

Delaware Cooperative Extension is working with individuals, farms and the agricultural industry to improve and increase economic and environmental integrity and food security.

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  • SOYBEAN VEIN NECROSIS VIRUS

    Soybean Vein Necrosis Virus is an Orthotospovirus. This virus can be seed borne or vectored by multiple thrips species.

  • TAR SPOT OF CORN

    Tar spot is caused by the fungal pathogen Phyllachoramaydis. Under favorable conditions for disease, yield loss on susceptible hybrids can be severe.

  • ALFALFA WEEVIL CONTROL IN ALFALFA

    The alfalfa weevil (AW) overwinters in both the adult and egg stages. Although egg laying occurs in the fall and spring, larvae hatching from spring-laid eggs cause the most damage. Eggs are laid in the alfalfa stem any time temperatures are above 48 degrees F.

  • ALFALFA WEEVIL CONTROL IN ALFALFA (Section 2)

    The alfalfa weevil (AW) overwinters in both the adult and egg stages. Although egg laying occurs in the fall and spring, larvae hatching from spring-laid eggs cause the most damage.

  • ANTHRACNOSE LEAF BLIGHT AND STALK ROT OF CORN

    Anthracnose leaf blight and stalk rot of corn, caused by the fungus Colletotrichum graminicola, is a disease of worldwide importance.  Yield losses can approach 40% and up to 80% lodging has been observed in fields with severe levels of anthracnose.  Anthracnose can be found in corn produced in Delaware and can pose problems to local growers. 

  • APHID CONTROL IN SMALL GRAINS IN THE SPRING

    The most common aphid species found in Delaware small grain fields are the English grain aphid, bird cherry-oat aphid, corn leaf aphid, and the greenbug. These four species can overwinter on small grains as eggs or as females which give rise to offspring in the spring. 

  • APPLIED RESEARCH RESULTS ON FIELD CROP AND VEGETABLE DISEASE CONTROL

    The primary purpose of this book is to provide cooperators and contributors a summary of the results of field research. Many data summaries and conclusions in chapters from this book have been submitted to the American Phytopathological Society for publication in Plant Disease Management Reports in 2015.

  • ASH RUST

    Ash rust, caused by the rust fungus Puccinia sparganioides, is a disease which infects white and green ash in Delaware. Black ash is also reported as a host where it occurs. Leaves, petioles and green twigs are infected. Ash rust, like many rust diseases, needs two different hosts to complete its complicated life cycle. The alternate host for ash rust is marsh and cord grass (Spartina spp.and Distichlis spicata) which is found in coastal areas.

  • AWARENESS OF POTENTIAL PLANT TOXICITY TO GRAZING ANIMALS

    Effects on animal health from consuming or contacting potentially toxic plants can range from none to death. Potential deleterious effects include tainted milk; liver or kidney damage; cardiovascular, nervous system, musculoskeletal, or gastrointestinal problems;

  • BACTERIAL LEAF SCORCH

    Bacterial leaf scorch (BLS) of hardwood trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants, is caused by the bacterium, Xylella fastidiosa. The small, xylem limited bacterium is carried from plant to plant by small insects such as leaf hoppers, sharpshooters, and spittlebugs. 

  • BAGWORMS (LEPIDOPTERA: PSYCHIDAE)

    Bagworms feed on a variety of deciduous and evergreen plants including arborvitae, juniper, spruce, pine, maples, sycamores and numerous others. Evergreen trees and shrubs cannot recover from complete defoliation; whereas deciduous trees usually develop new leaves following defoliation.

  • BARLEY YELLOW DWARF VIRUS

    Barley Yellow Dwarf (BYD) is caused by the viral pathogen Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus (BYDV) complex. The BYDV complex consists of five closely related viruses in the Luteoviridae family.

  • CERCOSPORA LEAF BLIGHT AND PURPLE SEED STAIN IN SOYBEAN

    Cercospora leaf blight and purple seed stain are caused by the fungus Cercospora kikuchii. This is a widespread disease, but yield loss is rarely observed.

  • CEREAL LEAF BEETLE CONTROL IN SMALL GRAINS

    Cereal Leaf Beetle: Overwintering adults emerge in mid-March and begin to lay eggs after 2 to 3 weeks of feeding. Since females prefer to lay eggs on young plants, spring-planted oats and late-planted wheat are the predominant hosts. 

  • CEREAL RUST MITE IN TIMOTHY

    Cereal rust mite adults are small measuring less than one millimeter (mm), and for the first time observer a 10-20X hand lens is needed to see them.

  • CHARCOAL ROT IN SOYBEAN

    Charcoal rot of soybean can be a major yield-robber of drought-stressed soybeans in Delaware. The disease is caused by Macrophomina phaseolina, a common soil-borne fungal pathogen that inhabits much of Delaware’s agricultural soils. 

  • CONSIDERATIONS FOR HERBICIDE USE IN PASTURES

    Weeds are often not desirable in pastures for many reasons. Many weeds are less palatable to animals, weeds decrease rapidly in nutritive value as they mature, and some can be toxic if consumed in large enough quantities. Weeds can also reduce the amount of desirable vegetation. Weed infestations can often be prevented by implementing cultural practices that maintain a dense cover of desirable forage where weeds find it difficult to germinate and grow.

  • CURVULARIA LEAF SPOT

    Curvularia leaf spot is caused by the fungal pathogen Curvularia lunata. This disease was first observed in Delaware at the end of the 2020 season. The economic impact of this disease is still unknown in the United States.

  • Corn Smut

    Corn smut is caused by the fungal pathogen Ustilago maydis. Spores are spread through wind or water splashing to nearby plants. This pathogen infects the corn through the silks prior to pollination, or by wounds on the plant.

  • DECTES STEM BORER MANAGEMENT IN SOYBEANS

    The Dectes stem borer (DSB) is a longhorn beetle that is native to North America, and feeds on many wild and some cultivated plant species. 

  • DETERMINING THE PRESENCE OF GLYPHOSATE-RESISTANT HORSEWEED UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS

    Glyphosate is the active ingredient in Roundup, Touchdown, Duramax, and numerous other brand names. If resistance is suspected in one of your fields, some questions should be asked to help determine if herbicide resistance is the reason for lack of control.

  • DIAGNOSING HORTICULTURAL PLANT PROBLEMS

    Diagnosing horticultural plant problems is similar to being a detective. The investigator must collect and evaluate all clues, keep good notes, establish the facts, and synthesize them into a conclusion. Take adequate representative samples and keep collected samples in good condition. Have an open mind and don't assume that the current problem is the same as another similar one.

  • DOWNY MILDEW ON LIMA BEAN

    Downy mildew of lima bean, caused by the oomycete, Phytophthora phaseoli, is a common disease in Delaware production areas. Proper identification and management of the disease is critical for protecting lima bean yields. This publication will review how to correctly identify the disease, describe its lifecycle, and outline management options for growers.

  • EFFICACY OF VEGETATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL BUFFERS TO CAPTURE EMISSIONS FROM TUNNEL VENTILATED POULTRY HOUSES

    Emissions of dust, gases and odors from poultry facilities pose major challenges for the poultry industry. In addition to environmental issues associated with air and water quality, nuisance complaints associated with alterations in the ventilations system and urban encroachment are becoming a greater concern. 

  • END-OF-SEASON CORN STALK NITRATE TESTING TO OPTIMIZE NITROGEN MANAGEMENT

    The end-of-season corn stalk nitrate test is a simple, inexpensive tool that can be used to assess the nitrogen (N) status of a corn crop at the end of the growing season. Studies in Delaware, and other states, have shown that corn producers can use this test to improve their N management programs on a site-specific basis (Binford et al., 1990; Sims et al., 1995). 

  • ESTABLISHMENT OF VEGETATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL BUFFERS AROUND POULTRY FARMS

    For many years the poultry industry has discouraged planting tall crops, shrubs or trees around poultry houses for fear the vegetation would restrict summer-time ventilation in naturally-ventilated poultry houses.

  • ESTIMATING YIELD GOAL FOR CROPS

    Many crop management decisions require farmers or their agronomist, crop consultant, or nutrient consultant to make an estimation of the expected yield from a given field. Farmers recognize that yields for the same crop are variable from field-to-field and that a given crop cannot be expected to produce a consistent yield across the entire state. 

  • Early Season Symptom Chart

    Early Season Symptom Chart: After spring green up. Symptoms not expressed on leaves emerge after the average temperatures reach 68°F +.

  • FROGEYE LEAF SPOT

    Caused by the fungus Cercospora sojina. The occurrence and severity of this disease varies across the region. Resistance to Group 11 (QoI) fungicides has been widely documented.

  • FROGEYE LEAF SPOT ON SOYBEAN

    Over the past 10 years the disease has been reported throughout soybean growing regions of the United States as far north as Minnesota [1].  FLS occurs in Delaware but to date its effects have not been severe.  This publication will discuss symptoms of the disease, the disease cycle, and management recommendations.

  • FUNGICIDE EFFICACY FOR CONTROL OF CORN DISEASES

    The Corn Disease Working Group (CDWG) has developed the following information on fungicide efficacy for control of major corn diseases in the United States.

  • FUNGICIDE EFFICACY FOR CONTROL OF FOLIAR SOYBEAN DISEASES

    The North Central Regional Committee on Soybean Diseases and the Regional Committee for Soybean Rust Pathology (NCERA-212 and NCERA-208) have developed the following information on foliar fungicide efficacy for control of major foliar soybean diseases in the United States.

  • FUSARIUM HEAD BLIGHT

    FHB, or scab, affects wheat, barley, oats, corn, and other grasses. Fusarium graminearum (syn. Gibberella zeae) is favored by warm, humid conditions during flowering and early kernel development.

  • FUSARIUM HEAD BLIGHT MANAGEMENT IN WHEAT

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is considered to be one of the most devastating diseases of wheat and barley worldwide. Multiple outbreaks of FHB have affected Delaware growers over the past decade, most recently in 2013. 

  • GRASS SAWFLY AND TRUE ARMYWORM MANAGEMENT IN SMALL GRAINS

    Grass Sawfly - Adult sawflies emerge in early April, mate and begin to lay eggs in the leaf margins of small grains. Most egg laying is complete by early May.

  • GRAY LEAF SPOT

    Gray leaf spot is caused by the fungal pathogen, Cercosporazeae-maydis. This disease is favored by warm temperatures over 80°F, and extended periods of high humidity. Fungal spores overwinter in corn crop residue, increasing chances for infection on non-rotated crops.

  • GRAY LEAF SPOT ON CORN

    Gray leaf spot, caused by the fungus Cercospora zeae maydis is the most significant yield-limiting disease of corn worldwide [1].  The disease was first reported in Illinois in 1924, and has increased in prevalence throughout corn growing regions since 1988. 

  • HOW TO SCOUT AND TROUBLESHOOT PROBLEMS IN CROPS

    Gather tools that will help you acquire a sample, cutters, small shovel, hand lens, plastic bags, marker, etc. Go to the field with an open mind and investigate all possibilities!

  • IDENTIFYING NUTRIENT DEFICIENCIES IN ORNAMENTAL PLANT

    Healthy plant growth and reproduction requires 17 nutrients. Of these, carbon (C), oxygen (O) and hydrogen (H) are derived mainly from the atmosphere and water. Soil minerals and/or soil organic matter are the main source of the remaining essential nutrients. 

  • IN-HOUSE WINDROW COMPOSTING AND ITS EFFECTS ON FOODBORNE PATHOGENS

    Control of foodborne pathogens at the farm is a growing concern that is being addressed in the industry. Several methods have shown varying effectiveness in reducing pathogens on the farm, one of which is in-house windrow composting.

  • INSECTICIDES FOR APHID CONTROL ON VEGETABLES

    Insecticide efficacy rankings based on consensus of Northeast, Mid-Atlantic, and Southern entomologists.

  • KISSING BUGS

    Kissing bugs are insects that feed on blood from animals and people. They are native to Delaware and live in wooded areas.

  • LARGE PLOT TEST-DEMONSTRATIONS FOR EVALUATING WEED CONTROL

    Growers, consultants, and the agribusiness industry often ask if they can benefit from changes in their weed management practices, such as the use of a different herbicide, altering the rate of the existing herbicide, incorporating cover crops, or using a new type of cultivator. Comparing changes on separate farms, or even separating fields into halves, often can lead to erroneous conclusions because of the variations within and between fields.

  • LEVELING UP POULTRY BIOSECURITY: FOOTWEAR

    Dedicated footwear or disposable boots for each poultry house is best for biosecurity. Disposable boots can be purchased online or at local farm supply stores.

  • LIMA BEAN FIELDS INFESTED WITH ALS-RESISTANT PIGWEED IN DELAWARE

    Pigweed is one of the most wide-spread weed species in Delaware and the region, infesting vegetable crops as well as grain crops. Pigweed is capable of quickly becoming the dominant species in a field due to its high seed output, producing over 100,000 seeds per plant.

  • LITTER AMENDMENTS: THEIR ROLE AND USE

    The use of litter treatments has become an important tool in the management of built-up litter. Because litter treatments cover a broad range of products and functions, thefollowing discussion is limited to those whose primary function is controlling ammoniavolatilization from poultry litter.

  • LITTER MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES ON NEW POULTRY FARMS

    Commercial poultry operations are required to handle poultry litter in a way that minimizes environmental impact, while also complying with State and Federal regulations. The use of permanent manure storage structures is supported by years of scientific data. 

  • MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR UTILIZING HARDWOOD SAWDUST AS POULTRY BEDDING

    Many concentrated poultry-producing areas of the USA including the Delmarva Peninsula have shortages of quality pine-base bedding materials. Yet, there are often ample supplies of cost-effective hardwood sawdust (HW) that could supplement this deficit. However, the poultry industry has been reluctant to use HW due to periodic mold-induced respiratory health concerns.

  • MANAGING BUILT UP LITTER

    Farm-related factors that contribute to poor litter conditions may include; wet or poor bedding quality, inadequate litter depth, poor site drainage, house condensation problems, improper management of the drinkers, cooling and ventilation systems, and not maintaining uniform bird density in houses. 

  • MANAGING FALL-PLANTED COVER CROPS FOR MAXIMUM BENEFIT

    Cover crops play an important role in protecting the soil and water when main crops like corn or soybean are not actively growing. The National Conservation Service promoted the use of cover crops during the Dust Bowl crisis of the 1930s, to protect soils from erosion.

  • MEASUREMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF SOIL PH FOR CROP PRODUCTION IN DELAWARE

    The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14; a pH value of 7 is considered neutral, while pH values less than 7 are acidic, and pH values greater than 7 are alkaline. The pH values of soil usually range from pH 4.0 to pH 8.0; higher or lower pH values are very rare and are normally found only in severely disturbed soils or in soils that have been amended with some type of acidic or alkaline material.

  • MULBERRY WEED (FATOUA VILLOSA)

    Mulberry Weed or hairy crabweed (Fatoua villosa) (Thunberg) Nakai is an invasive exotic Asian species from the Mulberry family (Moraceae).  First reported in Louisiana in 1964 by J.W. 

  • Maximizing the Potential of Poultry Litter as a Valuable Nutrient Source for Sustainable Crop Production

    The Delmarva Peninsula stands out as a prominent hub for broiler production, accounting for more than 596 million broilers in 2022 (Delaware Chicken Association, 2023). In 2022, Delaware raised approximately 234 million broilers, with a production value of 1.53 billion U.S. dollars (USDA NASS, 2023).

  • NEMATODE SOIL SAMPLING IN SOYBEANS

    When observing unexplained stunting, wilting, or death in crops. When planting into a field with a history of nematodes. In areas with prior poor performance.

  • NITROGEN MANAGEMENT FOR CORN IN DELAWARE: THE PRE-SIDEDRESS NITRATE TEST

    Unlike other nutrients, such as potassium or phosphorus, the nitrogen (N) requirement of corn cannot normally be met by N found in the soil. Consequently, most of the N needed by corn is supplied by applications of commercial fertilizers or manures unless crop rotations include legumes (e.g., alfalfa, clover, hairy vetch, soybeans), where N available from legume residues can often provide a significant percentage of corn’s N requirement.

  • NITROGEN MANAGEMENT FOR CORN IN DELAWARE: THE PRE-SIDEDRESS NITRATE TEST

    Historically, soil tests for N could not reliably identify the amount of N available to corn from soil organic matter, past applications of animal manures, crop residues, or previous applications of N fertilizers. Therefore, N recommendations for corn (and other crops) were based solely on expected crop yield.

  • NITROGEN MANAGEMENT FOR SOYBEANS

    Soybean is second most widely produced crop in DE, ranking just behind corn for grain. In 2017, approximately 160,000 acres of soybeans were produced in Delaware with an average yield of 51 bu/ac.

  • NITROGEN REMOVAL BY DELAWARE CROPS

    The amount of nitrogen (N) removed by the harvested portion of the crop is needed to develop nutrient balances. However, N removal by crops can vary considerably from field-to-field and year-to-year. 

  • NON-CHEMICAL PEST CONTROL OPTIONS FOR MANAGING INSECT PESTS ON BEANS

    July and August in the vegetable garden typically bring bountiful harvests of colorful vegetables. These are also the months when insect pests can really make their presence known, with plant and fruit damage becoming increasingly noticeable. 

  • NON-CHEMICAL PEST CONTROL OPTIONS FOR MANAGING INSECT PESTS ON BRASSICAS

    July and August in the vegetable garden typically bring bountiful harvests of colorful vegetables. These are also the months when insect pests can really make their presence known, with plant and fruit damage becoming increasingly noticeable. 

  • NON-CHEMICAL PEST CONTROL OPTIONS FOR MANAGING INSECT PESTS ON CUCURBITS

    July and August in the vegetable garden typically bring bountiful harvests of colorful vegetables. These are also the months when insect pests can really make their presence known, with plant and fruit damage becoming increasingly noticeable. 

  • NON-CHEMICAL PEST CONTROL OPTIONS FOR MANAGING INSECT PESTS ON SOLANACEOUS PLANTS

    July and August in the vegetable garden typically bring bountiful harvests of colorful vegetables. These are also the months when insect pests can really make their presence known, with plant and fruit damage becoming increasingly noticeable. 

  • NORTHERN CORN LEAF BLIGHT

    Northern corn leaf blight (NCLB) is a disease of corn caused by the fungus, Exserohilum turcicum. Severe outbreaks of the disease can cause up to 30-50% yield loss in dent corn if the disease is established before tassel [1]. NCLB also causes significant reduction in quality in sweet corn and silage corn. This publication will outline how to identify the disease, review its lifecycle, as well as appropriate management options for growers.

  • PHOSPHOROUS IN POULTRY LITTER: GUIDELINES FROM THE UNIVERSITY OF DELAWARE

    Delaware produces more than 250 million broiler chickens each year, making poultry production the single greatest contributor to state agricultural receipts. It also means that about 280,000 tons of poultry litter (manure and bedding material) are produced annually.

  • PHOSPHORUS CYCLING IN AGRICULTURE

    Crops often receive beneficial nutrients such as phosphorus (P) from manure and/or commercial fertilizer applications. However, the Delaware Nutrient Management Law limits the amount of P that can be applied to many agricultural soils in Delaware. 

  • PHYSODERMA BROWN SPOT

    Physoderma brown spot is caused by the fungal pathogen Physodermamaydis. Infection occurs in the leaf whorl when water has been present for an extended, warm period. Disease is limited and does not typically cause economic loss in the Mid-Atlantic.

  • POWDERY MILDEW ON SMALL GRAINS

    Powdery Mildew (PM) is a fungal leaf disease caused by Blumeria graminis , which can reduce grain yield and quality in cereal crops.

  • PYTHIUM ROOT ROT

    Caused by many species of the oomycete pathogen Pythium. Pythiumspecies are favored by periods of extended soil wetness.

  • ROOT KNOT NEMATODE IN SOYBEANS

    The root-knot nematode (RKN), specifically the southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita), is a yield-limiting nematode present in many Delaware fields. It is particularly damaging to soybean and can be a chronic pest if not managed properly. 

  • SCLEROTINIA STEM BLIGHT (WHITE MOLD) ON SOYBEAN

    Sclerotinia stem blight (SSB) is common on snap and lima beans and appears sporadically in soybeans. SSB is considered a minor disease of soybeans in Delaware but it can cause significant yield loss under the right conditions. This publication will discuss disease identification, disease cycle, and management recommendations for SSB.

  • SELECTING A DRONE FOR CROP SCOUTING

    The drone market targets many different customers, including agricultural professionals. Drone videos and photography allow for a different perspective of the field and have the potential to uncover in-season production issues that scouting may miss. Assessment of crop fields can be made quickly when flying 200-400 feet above the crop.

  • SELECTING PLANT DISEASE SPECIMENS

    Select material showing the symptoms you see. Send several samples showing different stages of disease development. Take samples showing transition areas between healthy and diseased. Dead plants, leaves or branches are generally of little use.

  • SEPTORIA BROWN SPOT IN SOYBEAN

    One of the most common foliar diseases of soybeans. Caused by the fungus Septoria glycines. Present in most fields at some level every year.

  • SEPTORIA NODORUM BLOTCH A.KA. SEPTORIA GLUME BLOTCH

    Parastagonospora nodorum (syn.Septoria nodorum) is a fungal pathogen that can produce symptoms on leaves, stems, glumes, and awns. P. nodorum has a wide host range, which includes wheat species, other cereals, and wild grasses.

  • SOYBEAN CYST NEMATODE

    The soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) is the most significant nematode pest affecting soybeans on Delmarva and in the United States. First detected in Delaware in the fall of 1979, the soybean cyst nematode (SCN) was widespread in Sussex County. Although found in Kent County just a few years later, SCN was not discovered until 1991 in New Castle County in the southwest corner near Clayton. 

  • SOYBEAN CYST NEMATODE (Part 2)

    Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN) is the most yield limiting pathogen of soybeans across the US. Often referred to as a “silent yield robber”, SCN may be present and reducing yield without notable aboveground symptoms

  • SOYBEAN SEVERE STUNT VIRUS

    Soybean severe stunt virus (SSSV) is a putative neopvirus causing a soilborne disease of soybeans in Delaware first described in 1988.

  • STALK ROTS ON CORN

    Stalk rots are one of the most significant set of diseases on corn.  These diseases are insidious, and often growers are unaware of their effects until harvest.  Low levels of stalk rot occur in nearly every corn field in Delaware, and severity and incidence varies from year to year. 

  • SWEET CORN TOLERANCE TO LAUDIS AND IMPACT

    Callisto, Impact, and Laudis are all similar herbicides (HPPD-inhibiting herbicides [Group 27]) and all are labeled for use in sweet corn. Previously, sweet corn hybrids have had limited evaluation to determine tolerance to Impact and Laudis.

  • Soil Insect Management in Field Corn

    Five major soil insects can be found in corn fields: seed corn maggot, white grubs, wireworms, cutworms and rootworms. Corn rootworm populations have increased in continuous corn production areas of New Castle and northern Kent counties. 

  • Spiders and Why You Want Them Around

    Common Name: Grass Spider

    Scientific Name: Agelenopsis

    Characteristics:

    • Cave-like web

    • Fast speed

    • Yellowish-brown color.

  • TEMPORARY MORTALITY MANAGEMENT ON NEW POULTRY FARMS

    Commercial poultry operations are required to implement mortality management practices to comply with State and Federal regulations. New operations are unable to apply for financial assistance to offset the costs of establishing permanent mortality management structures (e.g., composting units, mortality freezers) until they are actively raising chickens. 

  • TWO SPOTTED SPIDER MITE

    The twospotted spider mite (TSSM) is a plant-feeding mite that is an extremely widespread pest affecting nearly all crop plants (over 1000 plant species). TSSM is very small in size and requires magnification to see clearly. 

  • TYPES OF DRONES FOR FIELD CROP PRODUCTION

    As an emerging technology for farmers, drone terminology may cause confusion. However, the practical use of drones and sensors is fairly straightforward. 

  • WEED CONTROL IN TURF

    Your lawn may grow more than the beautiful grass you intended.  It may also grow weeds, which prevent your lawn from looking its best. In addition to reducing the aesthetics of your lawn, weeds compete with the desired turfgrass for water, nutrients, and light.  If you don’t control weeds, your lawn will deteriorate over time.

  • WINTER GRAIN MITE MANAGEMENT IN SMALL GRAINS

    The winter grain mite (WGM), as its name implies, is a cool season pest of small grains and orchard grass. 

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