Fact Sheets And Publications

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Nutrient Management Recommendations – Forage and Hay Crops


Annual Forages

a.    Cool Season Grass Forages for Hay

Annual or Sweet Bromegrass Hay

Rye (Secale cereal) Hay/Haylage/Silage

Triticale Hay

Annual or Italian Ryegrass Hay

Small Grain Hay

Winter Oat Hay

Barley Hay

Small Grain – Clover Mix Hay

b.    Warm Season Grass Forages for Hay

Forage Sorghum Hay

Sorghum/Sudangrass Hay

Sudangrass Hay

Pearl Millet Hay

Spring Oat Hay

Teff Hay

c. Cool Season Grass Forages for Grazing

Annual or Sweet Bromegrass

Rye (Secale cereal)/For Grazinglage/Silage


Annual or Italian Ryegrass

Small Grain

Winter Oat


Small Grain – Clover Mix

d.    Warm Season Grass Forage for Grazing

Forage Sorghum Hay

Sorghum/Sudangrass Hay

Sudangrass Hay

Pearl Millet Hay

Spring Oat Hay

Teff Hay

Perennial Forages - New Seeding

a.    Cool Season Grass Forages


Annual or Italian Ryegrass

 Reed Canarygrass

Alfalfa/Grass Mixed

Mixed Grass/Legume

 Smooth Bromegrass

Grass/Brassica Mixed


 Tall Fescue

Grass/Chicory Mixed

Perennial Ryegrass


Kentucky Bluegrass

Red Clover 

White Clover



b.    Warm Season Grass Forages


Eastern Gamagrass

Little Bluestem

Big Bluestem



Perennial Forages for Pasture – Established Stand

a.    Cool Season Grass Perennial Pasture – Established Stand

Alfalfa Pasture

Annual or Italian Ryegrass Pasture 

 Reed Canarygrass Pasture 

Alfalfa/Grass Mixed Pasture

Mixed Grass/Legume Pasture

Smooth Bromegrass Pasture

Grass/Brassica Mixed Pasture

Orchardgrass Pasture 

 Tall Fescue Pasture

Grass/Chicory Mixed Pasture

Perennial Ryegrass Pasture

 Timothy Pasture

Kentucky Bluegrass Pasture 

Red Clover Pasture

White Clover Pasture

Lespedeza/Sericea Pasture


b.    Warm Season Grass Perennial Pasture – Established Stand

Bermudagrass Pasture

Eastern Gamagrass Pasture

Little Bluestem Pasture

Big Bluestem Pasture

Indiangrass Pasture

Switchgrass Pasture

Calculating the Lime Recommendation

To determine the lime requirement for a field, follow these steps:

Select the appropriate lime table from the list below based upon the target pH of the crop as listed in the recommendation section.  Locate the value in the table where the Water pH row (shown along the left side of table) and the Buffer pH column (shown across the top of the table) intersect (see example).

Determine whether a lime credit is necessary. Lime credits are used to account for any lime that was applied in the past 18 months which has not had a chance to react. The equation for calculating the lime credit and an example can be obtained by clicking here.

Determine the the type of lime recommended (e.g., calcitic or dolimitic) by clicking here.

University of Delaware Lime Tables
These tables are designed to be used with the Adams-Evans buffer pH. If the lime requirement test was performed by laboratory using a different buffer method, contact the laboratory for the appropriate lime tables.

Target pH 5.2  -- Blueberries;  non-scab resistant potatoes

Target pH 5.6  -- Acid loving plants;  black high organic matter soils

Target pH 6.0  -- Most Delaware crops

Target pH 6.2 -- Many commercial vegetable crops

Target pH 6.5  -- High Calcium demand crops, golf course turf,

Target pH 6.8 -- Alfalfa

All Lime Tables -- This file contains copies of all six lime tables for commercial crops.

Richard Taylor (ret.), Karen Gartley, Amy L. Shober, and J. Thomas Sims (ret.)
Department of Plant and Soil Sciences
University of Delaware Cooperative Extension
Original Publication Date: January 2017
This institution is an equal opportunity provider.

UD Cooperative Extension

This institution is an equal opportunity provider.

In accordance with Federal law and U.S. Department of Agriculture policy, Cooperative Extension is prohibited from discriminating on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, age, or disability.