Peer-reviewed V2G articles

Kempton, W. and Steven Letendre. 1997. "Electric Vehicles as a New Source of Power for Electric Utilities" Transportation Research 2(3): 157-175. This is the first description of the key concepts of V2G: That the potential resource exceeds all current electric generation by many times, that the value is not in bulk power but in responding when needed, and that the driver sets limits based on driving need within which the grid operator dispatches based on time of electric system need. This first article is before we called the iceas "V2G" and the analysis is based primarily on peak power, which subsequent work (below) shows to be a lower-value market for V2G power.

Kempton, W. and Toru Kubo. 2000. "Electric-drive Vehicles for Peak Power in Japan" Energy Policy 28(1): 9-18. Also available in our Japanese translation. The Kempton-Kubo analysis is for Tokyo, based on existing power rates and Japanese driving patterns.

Letendre, Steven and W. Kempton, 2002. "The V2G Concept: A New Model for Power?" Public Utilities Fortnightly 140(4): 16-26. (Click title to read. Or, to see the full issue go to the Public Utilities Fortnightly web page for Feb 2002 for PUF subscribers, or LEXIS/NEXIS or WESTLAW.) Also available in our Japanese translation. This article is our best short summary (8 pages) of the V2G concept, incorporating findings from our CARB-LADWP report (below) that show the value of ancillary services to be far higher than that of peak power. This article is written for an electric-utility audience and thus provides less explanation of power types and markets than our articles written for a transportation audience.

Kempton, W. and J. Tomić. 2005. "Vehicle to Grid Fundamentals: Calculating Capacity and Net Revenue" J. Power Sources Volume 144, Issue 1, 1 June 2005, Pages 268-279. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2004.12.025. Final copy with pages and issue number is available via Science Direct (full article PDF copy requires subscription or payment). This is our best exposition of the fundamentals of both the vehicle fleet and electric markets. The basic 17 equations of V2G are derived. Correction to published version: Page 275, Table 3, line 3: should be "27.4 kWh" not "27.4 $/kWh".

Kempton, W. and J. Tomić. 2005. "Vehicle to Grid Implementation: from stabilizing the grid to supporting large-scale renewable energy". J. Power Sources Volume 144, Issue 1, 1 June 2005, Pages 280-294. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2004.12.022. Final copy with pages and issue number is available via Science Direct (full article copy requires subscription or payment). Overall size of V2G in comparison to electric generation and load, control strategies and business models for implementation, analysis of V2G as storage for large-scale renewable electricity. Appendix gives practical considerations and capacity of power connections.

Kempton, W. and A. Dhanju, "Electric Vehicles with V2G: Storage for Large-Scale Wind Power". Windtech International 2 (2), pp 18-21 (March 2006). A brief technical introduction to V2G as storage for wind power. Analyzes the duration of low-wind events as a measure of storage needs, and compares national-level potential V2G power with average load in 11 countries. This article appeared in the March 2006 issue of Windtech International and is displayed with permission. Copyright 2006 by Siteur Publications.

Letendre. Steven, Paul Denholm, and Peter Lilienthal, 2006, "Electric and Hybrid Vehicles: New Load or New Resource?" Public Utilies Fortnightly, pp 28-37 (December 2006). Review of V2G principles and new analysis of how it affects the load curve of electric utilities, also brief analysis of how plug power capacity affects V2G revenue. Clear and readable. Sidebar interview with CEO of Tesla Motors. The subtitle, inserted by the editors of this utility industry journal, is "The industry must join a growing chorus in calling for new technology." Original source is (This article is coauthored by employees of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright.)

Jasna Tomić and Willett Kempton, proof (with minor errors): "Using fleets of electric-drive vehicles for grid support" Journal of Power Sources, doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2007.03.010. Examines two actual electric vehicle fleets, their operating cycles, and the value of revenue from these vehicles if they were equipped for V2G power (the fleets examined were electric but not equipeed for V2G). This is a realistic analysis of real fleets in use today, and gives the revenue potential in the electric markets in which they operate.