Dr. Richard J. Howard

Research Associate, DuPont Agricultural Products


 B. S., Natural Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison (1974)
 M. S., Plant Pathology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (1977)
 Ph. D., Plant Pathology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (1980)

Professional Experience:

DuPont Agricultural Products, Research Associate (1998-present)

DuPont Central Research & Development, Research Associate (1994-'98); Senior Research Biologist (1989-94), Section Research Biologist (1986-89)

DuPont Agricultural Chemicals, Research Biologist (1984-86)
DuPont Biochemicals Department, Research Biologist (1980-83)

NSF Postdoctoral Fellow, Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases (1979-80)

Graduate Research Assistant, Department of Plant Pathology, Cornell University  (1974-79)

Awards, Honors and Professional Recognition:

Keynote Lecture, Canadian Microscopical Society (2001)
DuPont AgProducts Accomplishment Awards (1996, 1998, 1999)
The Histochemical Journal Lecture, Royal Microscopical Soc., York, UK (1997)
Associate Editor, Mycologia (1994-1999)
Alexopoulos Prize, Mycological Society of America  (1990)
NSF Competitive Postdoctoral Fellowship  (1980)
NIH National Research Service Award  (1979)
NIH Biotechnology Resources Branch HVEM Grant  (1979)
Elected to Phi Kappa Phi Honor Society (1977)
Sigma XI Grant-in-Aid of Research  (1976)
Elected to Gamma Sigma Delta Honor Society of Agriculture (1974)
Wisconsin Agricultural Studies Award  (1974) Bachelor of Science with Honors, University of Wisconsin (1974)
Dean's List, University of Wisconsin  (1971 - 1974)

Current Professional Affiliation & Service:

Mycological Society of America
Member since 1983
Chair, Committee on Sustaining Membership (1989-1991)
Member (ex officio) Committee on Awards (1989-1991)
Member (ex officio) Mycologia Memoirs Board of Editors (1989-1991)
Councilor for Cell Biology/Physiology (1993-1995)
Associate Editor of Society's Journal, Mycologia (1994-1997)
Treasurer of Society, Member of Council's Executive Committee and Member of Finance and Endowment (ex officio) Committees (1995-1998)
Member, Mycologia Review Board (1997, 1998)
Chair, Mycologia Cover Design Committee (1999)
Member, MSA Ad hoc Committee on Membership Services (1999)
Member, Committee on Finance (1999-2003)
Cover Editor, Mycologia (2000-2003)

Member of Graduate Faculty Ph.D. Committees, Purdue University:

Rosa Maria Lopez-Franco (91/92),  Gregory R. Davidson (94/95)

Primary Research Interests:

Areas of interest include fungal morphogenesis, especially as related to pathogenesis, fungal cell biology including infection structure function, adhesion, mechanisms of penetration and patterns of colonization. A cytological approach has been used throughout, and continuous effort has been devoted to the improved preservation of fungal cell ultrastructure and affinity probe reactivity using cryogenic means, including high-pressure freezing, freeze substitution and low temperature scanning electron microscopy. Various fluorescent proteins for tagging specific gene products, in situ, are also being utilized.


Howard, R. J., J. A. Sweigard, W. D. Hitz, F. G. Chumley, and B. S. Valent. Purified fungal spore tip mucilage.  U. S. Patent 5,264,569, November 23 1993

Howard, R. J. and D. P. Maxwell (1975) Cytology of Ceratocystis ulmi. Phytopathology 65, 816-819.

Smiley, R. W. and R. J. Howard (1976) Tolerance to benzimidazole-derivative fungicides by Fusarium roseum  on Kentucky bluegrass turf.  Plant Disease Reporter 60, 91-94.

Howard, R. J. and J. R. Aist (1977) Effects of MBC on hyphal tip organization, growth, and mitosis of Fusarium acuminatum, and their antagonism by D2O. Protoplasma 92, 195-210.

Howard, R. J. and J. R. Aist (1979) Hyphal tip cell ultrastructure of the fungus Fusarium:  improved preservation by freeze-substitution.  Journal of Ultrastructural Research 65, 224-234.

Hoch, H. C. and R. J. Howard (1980) Ultrastructural characterization of the basidiomycete Laetisaria arvalis by freeze-substitution. Protoplasma 103, 281-297.
Howard, R. J. and J. R. Aist (1980) Cytoplasmic microtubules and fungal morphogenesis:  ultrastructural effects of MBC determined by freeze-substitution of hyphal tip cells.  Journal of Cell Biology 87, 55-64.

Howard, R. J. (1981) Ultrastructural analysis of hyphal tip cell growth in fungi: Spitzenkorper, cytoskeleton and endomembranes after freeze-substitution. Journal of Cell Science 48, 89-103.

Hoch, H. C. and R. J. Howard (1981) Conventional chemical fixations induce artifactual swelling of dolipore septa.  Experimental Mycology 5, 167-172.

Howard, R. J. and K. L. O'Donnell (1987) Freeze substitution of fungi for cytological analysis.  Experimental Mycology 11, 250-269.

Hamer, J. E., R. J. Howard, F. G. Chumley, and B. Valent (1988) A mechanism for surface attachment in spores of a plant pathogenic fungus. Science 239, 288- 290.

Howard, R. J. and M. A. Ferrari (1989) Role of melanin in appressorium function. Experimental Mycology 13, 403-418.

Bourett, T. M. and R. J. Howard (1990) In vitro development of penetration structures in the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe grisea. Canadian Journal of Botany 68, 329-342.

Ranty, B., T. Lundquist, G. Schneider, M. Madden, R. Howard, and G. Lorimer (1990) Truncation of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) from Rhodospirillum rubrum affects the holoenzyme assembly and activity.  The EMBO Journal 9, 1365-1373.

Rossman, A. Y., R. J. Howard and B. Valent (1990) Pyricularia grisea, the correct name for the rice blast disease fungus. Mycologia 82, 509-512.

Heath, M. C., B. Valent, R. J. Howard, and F. G. Chumley (1990) Correlations between cytologically detected plant-fungal interactions and pathogenicity of Magnaporthe grisea toward weeping lovegrass.  Phytopathology 80, 1382-1386.

Heath, M. C., B. Valent, R. J. Howard, and F. G. Chumley (1990) Interactions of two strains of Magnaporthe grisea with rice, goosegrass, and weeping lovegrass. Canadian Journal of Botany 68, 1627-1637.

Howard, R. J., T. M. Bourett and M. A. Ferrari (1991) "Infection by Magnaporthe: an in vitro  analysis."  In Electron Microscopy of Plant Pathogens.  (K. Mendgen & D. Lesemann, Eds.) Springer-Verlag.

Bourett, T. M., and R. J. Howard (1991) Ultrastructural immunolocalization of actin in a fungus.  Protoplasma 163, 199-202.

Howard, R. J., M. A. Ferrari, D. H. Roach and N. D. Money (1991) Penetration of hard substrates by a fungus employing enormous turgor pressure.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 88, 11281-11284.

Bourett, T. M., and R. J. Howard (1992) Actin in penetration pegs of the fungal rice blast pathogen, Magnaporthe grisea. Protoplasma 168, 20-26.

Heath, M. C., R. J. Howard, B. Valent, and F. G. Chumley (1992) Ultrastructural interactions of one strain of Magnaporthe grisea with goosegrass and weeping lovegrass.  Canadian Journal of Botany 70, 779-787.

Deising, H., R. L. Nicholson, M. Haug, R. J. Howard, and K. Mendgen. (1992) Adhesion pad formation and the involvement of cutinase and esterases in the attachment of uredospores to the host cuticle. The Plant Cell 4, 1101-1111.

Bourett, T. M., M. A. Picollelli, and R. J. Howard. (1993) Postembedment labeling of concanavalin A-binding sites in freeze-substituted fungal cells. Experimental Mycology 17, 223-235.

Bourett, T. M. and  R. J. Howard (1993) "Use of a post-embedding, indirect, double-sided labeling procedure to identify conA binding sites within apical vesicles of a filamentous fungus". In Proc. 51st Ann. Meeting Micros. Soc. Amer. (G. W. Bailey and C. L. Reider, eds.). San Francisco Press, Inc., pp. 282-283.

Howard, R. J. and T. M. Bourett (1993) "Cryo-enhancement of ultrastructural, immunological, cytochemical, and low voltage SEM characterization of fungal growth and morphogenesis". In Proc. 51st Ann. Meeting Micros. Soc. Amer.  (G. W. Bailey and C. L. Reider, eds.). San Francisco Press, Inc., pp. 114-115.

Braun, E. J., and R. J. Howard (1994) Adhesion of fungal spores and germlings to host plant surfaces.  Protoplasma 181, 202-212

Howard, R. J. (1994) Cell biology of pathogenesis. pp. 3-22, In Rice Blast Disease (R. S. Zigler, S. Leong & P.S. Teng, eds.).  CAB International

Bourett, T.M., and R. J. Howard (1994) Enhanced labeling of concanavalin A binding sites in fungal endomembranes using a double-sided, indirect method. Mycological Research 98, 769-775.

Braun, E. J., and R. J. Howard. (1994) Adhesion of Cochliobolus heterostrophus conidia and germlings to leaves and artificial surfaces. Experimental Mycology 18, 211-220.

Bourett, T.M., R.J. Howard, D.P. O'Keefe and D.L. Hallahan (1994) Gland development on leaf surfaces of Nepeta racemosa. International Journal of Plant Science 155,  623-632.

Franco-Lopez, R., R.J. Howard and C.E. Bracker (1995) Satellite spitzenkorper in growing hyphal tips.  Protoplasma 188, 85-103.

Bourett, T.M., and R.J. Howard (1996) Brefeldin A-induced structural changes in the endomembrane system of a filamentous fungus, Magnaporthe grisea. Protoplasma 190:151-163.

Czymmek, K.J., T.M. Bourett and R.J. Howard (1996) Immunolocalization of tubulin and actin in thick-sectioned fungal hyphae after freeze substitution fixation and methacrylate de-embedment.  Journal of Microscopy 181:153-161.

Howard, R.J. and B. Valent (1996) Breaking and Entering: Cell Biology of Host Penetration by the Fungal Rice Blast Pathogen, Magnaporthe grisea.  Annual Review of Microbiology Vol. 50: 491-512

Howard, R.J. et al. (1996) Biology of cymoxanil action against Phytophthora infestans infection of tomato and potato.  In Pests & Diseases. Proc. 1996 Brighton Conf. Brit. Crop Protection Council Vol. 3, pp. 933-936.

Money, N.P. and R.J. Howard (1996) Confirmation of a link between fungal pigmentation, turgor pressure, and pathogenicity using a new method of turgor measurement.  Fungal Genetics & Biology 20:217-227.

Satiat-Jeunemaitre, B., L. Cole, T. Bourett, R. Howard, and C. Hawes (1996) Brefeldin A effects on plant and fungal cells: something new about vesicle trafficking?  Journal of Microscopy 181:162-177.

Howard R.J. (1997) "Breaching the outer barriers--cuticle and cell wall penetration."  Chapter 3, pp. 43-60, In The Mycota, vol. VI Plant Relationships (G Carroll and P Tudzynski, eds.), Springer-Verlag, Berlin

Sugi J.A., S.F. Pascholati, H. Kunoh, R.J. Howard and R.L. Nicholson (1998) Association of Pestalotia malicola with the plant cuticle: visualization of the pathogen and detection of cutinase and non-specific esterase. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology 52:213-221.

Bourett, T.M., C.J. Czymmek and R.J. Howard (1998) An improved method for affinity probe localization in whole cells of filamentous fungi. Fungal Genetics & Biology 24:3-13.

Howard, R.J., M.A. Ferrari, T. Bourett, M.D. Stidham, C. Schillingford, R.J. Power R.A. Hamlen. (1998) Attivita biologica di cymoxanil nei confronti di Plasmopara viticola e di Phytophthora infestans: analisi citologica. Informatore Fitopatologico 3:61-64.

Bourett, T.M., C.J. Czymmek and R.J. Howard (1999) Ultrastructure of chloroplast protuberances in rice leaves preserved by high-pressure freezing. Planta 208:472-479

Duncan, K.E. and R.J. Howard (2000) Cytological analysis of wheat infection by the leaf blotch pathogen, Mycosphaerella graminicola. Mycological Research 104:1074-1082

Dickson, R., C. Weis, R.J. Howard, S.P. Alldrick, R.J. Ellis, G. Lorimer, A. Azem and P. Viitanen (2000) Reconsitution of higher plant chloroplast chaperonin 60 tetradecamers active in protein folding. J. Biol. Chem. 275:

Howard, R.J., M.A. ferrari, J.-L. Genet and M. Stidham. (2000) Biology of Curzate action against Plasmopara viticola infection of grape. Proc. AFPP, Sixieme Conf. Intn'l. sur les Maladies des Plantes, Tours, France.

Howard, R.J. (2001) Cytology of infection by fungal plant pathogens. Curr. Opin. Microbiol (invited review, in preparation)

Czymmek, K.J., T.M. Bourett and R. J. Howard. Cytoplasmic expression of fluorescent proteins in the blast pathogen, Magnaporthe grisea, and its utility for in vivo fungal imaging duirng plant pathogenesis (in preparation).

Howard, R.J. and Gow, N.A.R., editors (2001) The Mycota, Vol VIII. Biology of the Fungal Cell. Springer-Verlag (in press)


 DuPont Crop Genetics
 Experimental Station, Powder Mill Rd.
 Wilmington, DE  19880-0402 USA
 Tel (302) 695-1494,  Fax (302) 695-4509
 email "Richard.J.Howard@usa.dupont.com"


Plant Biology and Biotechnology Home Page

UD Participating Faculty

DuPont Participating Scientists


Other Links

Created July 1998
Last updated December 12, 2000

Copyright © University of Delaware, 1998.