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Samuel C. K. Lee

Samuel C. K. Lee

Assistant Professor
Physical Therapy Department
301 McKinly Lab




Research Interests

My interest is to improve the function of individuals with central nervous system injury through the application of electrical stimulation to activate paralyzed or weakened muscles. To this end, I am interested in the use of electrical stimulation as a tool to study the physiologic characteristics of muscle and the central and peripheral nervous systems; to be applied as a rehabilitative or training method to improve muscle function and strength; and as a method to produce functional movement (FES) of impaired muscles.


  • 1999-2000 University of Pennsylvania – Post-Doctoral Fellow: Neurorehabilitation
  • 1994-1999 University of Delaware – PhD: Biomechanics and Movement Sciences/Philosophy
  • 1993 Thesis Option: The Effects of a Variable-Frequency Train on Human Quadriceps Femoris Muscle During Passive Isokinetic Movements.
  • 1992 University of Delaware, Department of Physical Therapy, Newark, DE:  Master of Physical Therapy.

  • 1988 Boston University -- BS cumlaude: Biomedical Engineering


  • PHYT633 Applied Physiology II (3 credit course). Discusses the research on the effects of exercise on the various patient populations (not including cardiopulmonary). Emphasis is placed on the musculoskeletal system and on exercise prescription and progression.
  • PHYT634 Electrotherapy (4 credit course). Provides an understanding of the physiological basis for the use of physical agents and electrotherapy. Emphasis is placed on patient evaluation and clinical applications of electrical stimulation used in physical therapy clinics.


  • College of Health Sciences, University of Delaware “Researcher of the Month”, January 2012.

  • Winner of the “Best Student Paper” (to AM Tokay). Tokay AM, McRae CGA, Johnston TE, Lee SCK. The feasibility of using functional electrical stimulation assisted cycling in children with cerebral palsy. 12th Annual Conference of the International FES Society, Nov 10-14, 2007, Philadelphia, PA.
  • 2003 - Honoree, American Physical Therapy Association , Profiles in Excellence, April, 2003
  • "Best Poster Presentation” for the poster:. Ding J, Lee SCK, Tokay A, Prosser L, Stackhouse S, Wexler AS, Binder-Macleod SA Modeling Isometric Contractions of Leg Muscles for Children with Cerebral Palsy. Presented at the 3rd Annual Center for Biomedical Engineering Research Symposium, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, 2006.
  • Nominated for the 2005 Gayle G. Arnold Award for Excellence in the Care of Children with Cerebral Palsy for the paper entitled: “Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation and Volitional Isometric Strength Training of the Quadriceps Femoris and Triceps Surae in Children with Spastic Diplegic CP”. Presented at the 58th Annual Meeting of the American Academy for Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, September 29 – October 2, 2004.
  • Mentored Drexel University Senior Design Project: Bohmik M, Ginder M, Kleinberg M, Greising J, Lind D, Lee SCK. Instrumented bicycle pedals for use in a functional electrical stimulation study for children with cerebral palsy. Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Drexel University, 2003-2004 Academic Year. Research Day, March 4th, 2004. Awarded 1st place project in the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department. Awarded 3rd place project ($500) in the overall Drexel Engineering Department competition and a private industry award (Cisco Systems $500).
  • "Best Poster” for the poster: The effects of electrical stimulation vs. volitional strength training on gait in children with cerebral palsy. Gait and Clinical Motion Analysis Society Annual Meeting, Lexington, KY, April, 2004.
  • "Chattanooga Research Award”. American Physical Therapy Association, 2002 for the article: Stackhouse SK, Stevens JE, Pearce KM, Lee SCK, Snyder-Mackler L, Binder-Macleod SA. Maximum voluntary activation in fresh and fatigued muscle of young and elder individuals. Phys. Ther. May 2001, Phys. Ther. 81:1102-09, 2001.
  • "Outstanding Student Presentation, Muscle Fatigue Poster/Discussion” for the presentation: Maximum Voluntary Recruitment in Fresh and Fatigued Muscle of Young and Elder Individuals. Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, Experimental Biology 99, Washington, D.C., April 19, 1999.
  • “Top 10 Speaker”. Annual Biomedical Engineering Project Conference, Boston University, Boston, MA, April, 1988.

Link to CV (pdf)

Link to CV (docx)

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