Abstracts Submitted from
Physical Therapy, Medical Technology, and Excercise Science

Undergraduate Summer Research Symposium August 12, 2009

Ordered alphabetically by student's last name

Beri Gilsdorf Kregling Mosko Torre
Bond Hall Lewis Mulrooney, Ta
Holder Mahmoud Thorne-FitzGerald
Flynn Kelly McElligott Timbo

Movement and Muscle Activation Strategies of People with Knee Osteoarthritis during Pivoting

Jonathan Beri1, Deepak Kumar2,3, Joshua Winters2,3, and Katherine S. Rudolph2,3
1Department of Health and Exercise Science, 2Program in Biomechanics and Movement Science, 3Department of Physical Therapy

People with knee osteoarthritis (OA) walk with less knee motion and higher muscle activity, which overtime, can lead to higher joint loading and a rapid progression of the disease. Recent studies have demonstrated that people with knee OA experience buckling in the knee, thus analysis of an activity like the crossover cut that involves pivoting would provide insight into strategies associated with torsion at the knee.  The aim of this project is to compare the neuromuscular patterns of people with knee OA and healthy controls during the crossover cut.  A 3-D motion capture system, force platform and 16 channel EMG system will be used to collect movement and muscle activation patterns while knee OA and control subjects perform ten trials walking over-ground at their natural self-selected speed.  Ten trials of a crossover cut task will also be collected in which subjects start walking straight ahead, plant their involved foot on a force platform, pivot 45o toward the involved side, and continue walking forward along the 45° trajectory.   Knee motion, peak loading, and levels of muscle activation will be compared between the two groups.  The relationships between movement and muscle activation patterns and clinical tests of strength and knee function will be explored.  Currently there are no reports analyzing knee torsion in people with knee OA.  The results of this project could provide insight into mechanisms that might accelerate knee degeneration and information that might be useful in developing rehabilitation interventions to reduce knee loading for people with knee OA. Funding for this project has been provided by NIH P20 RR16458 and NIH S10RR022396.

Nerve Dysfunction in Diabetes: Can Tekturna® Help?

Danielle R Bond1, Raelene E Maser1, David G Edwards2, William B Farquhar3, M James Lenhard4
1Department of Medical Technology; 2Department of Health, Nutrition, and Exercise Science; 3Department of Health, Nutrition, and Exercise Science; 4Diabetes and Metabolic Research Center, Christiana Health Care Services

Background and Aims:  Diabetic neuropathy affects 60 – 70% of persons with diabetes  / mellitus worldwide.  Distal symmetric polyneuropathy and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy are two specific types of nerve dysfunction.  Distal symmetric polyneuropathy limits sensation in lower extremities and can often lead to amputations.  Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy is a cause of morbidity and mortality associated with an increased risk of cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death.  In this study, we will investigate the effect of a medication (direct renin inhibitor Tekturna®) on nerve function. Methods:  Sixty individuals with type 1/type 2 diabetes will participate in a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial.  Participants will be on study medication for six weeks.  The degree of distal symmetric polyneuropathy will be determined by measuring large sensory nerve fiber function (i.e., vibratory threshold).  Cardiovascular autonomic function will be assessed by measures of heart rate variability (HRV). These tests will include RR-variation during deep breathing (e.g., expiration/inspiration ratio).  All tests will be conducted before and after the participants’ randomization. Results:  Seven participants are currently enrolled, and four have completed the study to date.  Data that has been collected includes demographics (e.g., duration of diabetes, BMI, age), tests of nerve function, and biochemical markers (e.g., potassium, creatinine, fructosamide).  The study is anticipated to be completed in the spring of 2011. Conclusions:  At the current time we do not have sufficient data due to the small sample size.  We hypothesize that the study medication will improve nerve dysfunction in persons with diabetes by improving vascular function.

The Effects of Stages 3 & 4 Chronic Kidney Disease on Endothelial Progenitor Cells

Mark Darocki, J.M. Kuczmarski, and David G. Edwards
Department of Healkth, Nutrition and Exercise Science

Patients diagnosed with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are more likely to die of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than progress to end stage renal disease (ESRD). Evidence indicates that this cardiovascular mortality in CKD patients is related to atherosclerosis as a result of endothelial dysfunction (ED). One potential mechanism of ED is the inability of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) to successfully repair the damaged endothelium, leading to further injury and impaired functional ability. Recent findings indicate that EPCs are deficient in number and function in patients with CKD. However, no studies conducted thus far have identified EPCs with both endothelial and immature cell surface markers in earlier stage CKD. Further, the number and function of these cells have not been assessed using colony forming and migratory assays in this population. In this investigation, four individuals with stage 3 & 4 CKD (46 ± 7yrs; 2 Males: 2 Females) and four apparently healthy controls (37 ± 7 yrs; 1 Male: 3 Females) were recruited, blood was drawn, circulating EPCs were quantified using flow cytometry, and EPCs were isolated from the peripheral blood for further in vitro cell culture assays. Circulating EPCs categorized as CD34+ (515 ± 123 vs. 270 ± 91), CD34+/CD45- (390 ± 151 vs. 191 ± 49), and CD34+/KDR+/CD45- (286 ± 69 vs. 143 ± 49) were higher in the healthy controls as compared to the CKD individuals. Additionally, the amount of colony forming units was lower in the CKD group when compared to the healthy controls (4 ± 1, 8 ± 3). Finally, no differences were observed in migratory ability of EPCs in response to VEGF between healthy controls (C. 15 ± 8 vs. VEGF 12 ± 3) and subjects with CKD (C. 22 ± 4 vs. VEGF 26 ± 6).

Predicting Maximum Force Generating Ability in Healthy Individuals

Sarah Flynn, Trisha Kesar, Stuart Binder-Macleod
Department of Physical Therapy

Muscle activation refers to the amount of force voluntarily created by a muscle.  This voluntary force produced may be less than the muscle is physically able to produce (the estimated maximum force) due to damage to neural connections between the muscle and brain.  Knowing the voluntary activation of a muscle is important for rehabilitation and research purposes in special populations, such as those that have suffered a stroke.  / The gold standard for predicting the maximum force generating ability of a skeletal muscle is the burst superimposition technique.  However, this technique is not a valid measurement when used with low-intensity contractions.  Therefore, other methods have been developed.  These are the Twitch Interpolation Technique and the Twitch to Tetanus Ratio Method.  These techniques have yet to be proven valid on any population.   / The aim of this study will be to test the validity of the Twitch Interpolation technique and the Twitch to Tetanus Ratio on healthy individuals so that these methods can be later utilized on special populations.  The estimated maximum forces of the subjects’ muscles calculated by these two tests will be compared to the value calculated by the burst superimposition technique.  Funding for this work was provided by NIH Grant R01 NR010786 and the University of Delaware Life Sciences Undergraduate Research Program.

Comparing the Effects of Functional Neuromuscular Fatigue on Dual-Task Jump-Stop Biomechanics between Genders

Gilsdorf CM, Douex AT, and Kaminski TW
Athletic Training Research Laboratory, University of Delaware, Newark DE

BACKGROUND: The jump-stop is defined as a vertical or longitudinal jump followed by a sudden change in direction.  This maneuver mimics one of the most common mechanisms for non-contact knee injury during sport participation.1,2 Research on the anterior cruciate ligament has shown greater incidence and risk for ACL injuries in females compared to males.3,4  During jump-landing females tend to inadvertently land in a less flexed, valgus position, using increased activation of the quadriceps muscles.2,5,6,7,8 Many studies implicate neuromuscular fatigue as a causative factor for injury; however most of these data come from epidemiology, not hard science.9,10,11,12,13,14  OBJECTIVE: To determine the gender-effects of neuromuscular fatigue on jump-stop biomechanics following a functional fatigue protocol (FFP).  SUBJECTS: Ten healthy subjects, 5 male (age: 22.8+3.4 yrs.; height: 172.7+6.5 cm; mass: 71.8+8.3 kg) and 5 female (age: 25.2+2.6 yrs.; height: 170.2+4.4 cm; mass: 64.1+12.7 kg), volunteered for the investigation.  To meet inclusion criteria, subjects must have been: (1) deemed healthy by the Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR-Q); (2) free from illness/injury at present time; (3) physically able to complete the FFP.  INTERVENTIONS: All subjects completed vertical-jump testing and several dual-task jump-stop conditions (3 conditions - 13 total repetitions) while 3D-motion analysis, kinetics and surface EMG were recorded from: Vastus Medialis (VM), Vastus Lateralis (VL), Biceps Femoris (BF), Semitendinosus (ST), Tibialis Anterior (TA), and Peroneus Longus (PL).  Fatigue was induced via a previously-validated circuit, consisting of timed-sprinting, cutting, and jumping tasks.  After each trial, a Borg (RPE) score was taken.  Subjects continued to run subsequent trials with 20-second rest periods until specific blinded termination criteria were met.  Upon conclusion, all subjects were immediately re-tested using the jump-stop assessment protocol.  OUTCOME MEASURES: Knee and ankle kinematics, ground reaction force, EMG and choice reaction data were extracted per jump-stop condition pre- and post-fatigue.  All data were visually inspected and analyzed using custom software.  Comparisons were made using repeated-measures ANOVA (P<0.05).  

Development of a Four Minute Protocol for Determining Anaerobic Threshold

Zoltan Hall, Tony Lewis, Annette Torre, John Burrows, and Mark Lafferty
Delaware Technical & Community College

Endurance exercise prescription is based upon heart rate [HR] at anaerobic threshold [AT]. Proper exercise prescription plans result in an increase of the HR at which AT occurs, indicating an increased level of fitness.  The Bruce and Balke treadmill protocols are the most commonly used for determining AT.  These protocols usually take between twelve and eighteen minutes.  These time consuming protocols make it difficult to evaluate large numbers of subjects.  We have developed a four minute protocol [DTCC2] which predicts HR at AT to within ± 3% of the values achieved using the Bruce protocol.  With this new protocol it is possible to determine the AT of a larger number of clients more efficiently without compromising accuracy. / Funding for this project was provided by NIH NCRR INBRE grant to Delaware 2P20RR016472.

Normotensive Salt-Resistant Individuals and the Nighttime Dip in Blood Pressure

Michael Holder, Meghan Wenner, Jody Greaney, Juliann Galaszewski, and William B. Farquhar

Introduction: Blood pressure follows a circadian rhythm, peaking in early morning and decreasing, or dipping, at night. If blood pressure does not dip at night, this is considered nondipping, and is associated with a variety of physiological abnormalities. Dietary salt is recognized to negatively alter the nighttime blood pressure response in salt sensitive hypertensive individuals. The following study observes salt resistant normotensive individuals, because they do not have a direct increase in blood pressure when receiving a dietary salt load.  Purpose:  The purpose of the following study is to determine if a high salt diet attenuates the night time dip in blood pressure, in salt resistant normotensive individuals.   Methodology/Results: Fourteen subjects (10 males and 4 females) participated in this study. All had normal blood pressure and were salt resistant. Individuals who were salt resistant were characterized as having less than a 5 mmHg change in blood pressure from a low to a high sodium diet. These subjects were studied during a baseline (100 mmol/day), low salt (20 mmol/day) and high salt (350 mmol/day) period. Twenty-four hour ambulatory blood pressures were measured on the last day of each trial. There was no significant difference in nighttime blood pressure dip between baseline, low and high sodium concentrations.  Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that dietary salt did not affect the nighttime dip in blood pressure in normotensive salt resistant subjects. This suggests that in this particular population dietary salt may not play a particular role in the nighttime dip in blood pressure. 

Relationship between the bone and muscle disparities in the lower extremities
of individuals with hemiplegic cerebral palsy.

Eleanor A. Kelly, Jacques Riad, Brianne Mulrooney, Joshua T. Kirby, Freeman Miller, and Christopher M. Modlesky

Cerebral palsy (CP), a disorder of movement and posture, causes restricted muscle growth, reduced coordination, and diminishes participation in physical activity. Hemiplegic CP contributes to the underdevelopment of bone, but these consequences are usually limited to the affected extremities.  One factor very strongly related to bone development is the force of muscle contraction on bone.  However, it is unknown if disparities in bone development in adolescents with hemiplegic CP are due to disparities in muscle mass. The purpose of this study was to determine if muscle groups in the thigh and hip were related to bone volume and strength in the femur of adolescents with hemiplegic CP.  Images of the thighs and hips were collected from adolescents with hemiplegic CP using a Phillips 1.5 Tesla MRI scanner.  Cortical bone volume and estimated bone strength of the middle third of the femur and muscle mass of the quadriceps, hamstrings and hip adductors were determined using custom software designed with Interactive Data Language (Research Systems, Boulder, CO).  Although the quadriceps, hamstring, and hip adductor muscle masses were all related to cortical bone volume and estimated strength in the femur of the affected and unaffected lower extremities of adolescents with hemiplegic CP, only the disparity in quadriceps muscle mass (i.e., lower in the affected side) was related to disparities in bone (i.e., lower in the affected side).  Future studies are needed to determine if rehabilitation programs that target specific muscle groups can improve bone development in adolescents with hemiplegic CP.  Supported by FoU  Kärnsjukhuset Skövde Sweden and the NIH (HD 50530).

Ankle joint compensations to Passive Dynamic Ankle Foot Orthosis use

Alissa V. Kregling1, Kota Takahashi3, Elisa Schrank2, Steven J. Stanhope1,2,3
1Department of Health, Nutrition and Exercise Science; 2Department of Engineering;
Biomechanics and Movement Science Interdisciplinary Program

Passive dynamic ankle foot orthoses (PD-AFOs) are braces that act like rotational springs to mimic muscle moments during gait.  Our hypothesized theory of absolute moment substitution predicts individuals will compensate to PD-AFO use by decreasing the magnitude of muscle effort by precisely the level of assistance provided by the PD-AFO.  The purpose of my research was to test this theory during normal gait.  Gait data from two healthy adults (S1, S2), walking at a constant velocity, were analyzed with and without wearing  a PD-AFO designed to replicate 50% of natural ankle stiffness  during stance.   S1 walked with a consistent velocity (.79 statures/s), while S2 walked with a slightly faster velocity (.88 vs. .91 statures/s; p=.002) with and without the AFO. Peak ankle moments during the stance phase of gait decreased 16.84% (p=.0006) and -4.5% (p=.0773) from un-braced levels for S1 and S2. During the braced condition, the peak AFO moment was well below the 50% un-braced targeted value for both subjects (26.488% and 21.157% of the un-braced peak; p-values < .0005). In addition, ankle ROM was significantly decreased in the braced vs. un-braced condition for S1: 9° vs. 33° and S2: 8° vs. 24°. Both subjects also demonstrated an increased natural ankle moment in early stance during the braced condition and a shorter duration of the second rocker (earlier heel rise), indicating a compensatory strategy requiring an increased utilization of the ankle joint musculature.  Therefore, the theory of absolute moment substitution was not supported by the findings of this study.

Interactions of Eristostatin with Natural Killer and Melanoma Cells

Alaa Mahmoud and Mary Ann McLane
Department of Medical Technology
The ability of Natural Killer (NK) cells to lyse cancerous cells has been well documented.  Interestingly, it has previously been shown that 4μM eristostatin, a snake venom disintegrin from Eristocophis macmahoni, elicits a 2-fold increase in the lytic ability of TALL-104 (NK-like) cells towards SBcl2, a radial growth phase melanoma cell line.  Based on these findings, it was hypothesized that eristostatin can also enhance the lytic ability of NK cells toward melanoma cells (MV3, M24met, SBcl2, C8161, WM164, and 1205Lu). The lytic ability of NK cells toward SBcl2 was enhanced in the presence of 3μM eristostatin as hypothesized, but the other melanoma cell lines did not exhibit this trend.   / In addition to the cytotoxicity assays, three-dimensional (3D) experiments were carried out to study the interactions of eristostatin with melanoma cells in a model that more closely resembles in vivo conditions. The 3D studies were carried out in Matrigel®, a basement membrane harvested from Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm mouse sarcoma.  Matrigel® is comprised primarily of laminin, followed by collagen IV, heparin sulfate proteoglycans, entactin/nidogen, and growth factors.  We carried out a live/dead assay in Matrigel® to see if eristostatin has an effect on live/dead ratios in a 3D environment.  Cells in Matrigel® with or without eristostatin did not exhibit a difference in either spatial configuration or live/dead ratios. It should be noted that eristostatin does not have inhibitory activity against cell adhesion to laminin or collagen.  Since eristostatin inhibited melanoma cell migration on fibronectin (FN), future experiments will incorporate FN into the matrix.

The Correlation Between Asymmetry and Functional Walking in Stroke Patients.

Jill M McElligott, Christine L Malecka, and Darcy S Reisman
Department of Physical Therapy

An asymmetric gait is most commonly linked to walking dysfunction in people with hemiparesis after a stroke. Spatiotemporal asymmetry has been observed in stance durations between the paretic and non-paretic limbs, step length, and in the duration of double support following a stroke. The consequences, however, of asymmetry in regards to walking, energy cost, balance, and disability remain unclear. The purpose of this project is to investigate the relationship between single limb support (SLS), step length asymmetry and measures of balance, gait function and disability in hopes of determining whether an asymmetrical gait is related to functional walking in stroke survivors.  / We hypothesize that in chronic stroke survivors, spatiotemporal gait asymmetry is positively correlated with functional walking ability. Thirteen subjects with right or left hemiparesis ages 60.77 ± 8.85 were asked to walk on a treadmill at their self-selected speed. Results showed a positive correlation between temporal asymmetric gait and energy during walking in persons post stroke (r = 0.74338; SLS and r = 0.63185 stance). Negative correlation was found between temporal asymmetric gait and walking speed in persons post stroke (r = -0.49430; SLS and r = -0.34727 stance). No correlation was found for spatial asymmetry (step length) with either speed or efficiency. In addition, spatiotemporal symmetry did not correlate with measures of functional gait.

A Study into Research in Fields Relating to Neonatal and Pediatric Pulmonology

John Mosko, Thomas Shaffer, M. Elena Rodriguez, Kevin Dysart, Yan Zhu, and Aaron Chidekel,
Nemours Research Lung Center/Biomedical Research Department, Alfred I. DuPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE;
Thomas Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, PA; Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA

The Summer Scholars Program research opportunity for the summer was spent working in the Nemours Research Lung Center (NRLC) at the A.I. DuPont Hospital for Children under the direction of Thomas Shaffer, MSE, Ph.D. The NRLC has been working on several projects for an extended period of time, for both papers already published and projects awaiting publication. The projects worked with, therefore, include: High Flow Nasal Cannula Animal Studies utilizing different mixtures of gases, under the direction of Kevin Dysart, M.D. performed at the Animal Intensive Care Unit; Respiratory Function Assessment Studies using different lung function techniques in Patients Undergoing One Lung Ventilation, directed by M. Elena Rodriguez, M.D.; Clinical Studies in Patients with Respiratory, Cardiopulmonary and Orthopedic disorders with potential pulmonary complications, studied by Drs. Rodriguez, Shaffer and Chidekel (these clinical studies are performed in the Non-Invasive Pulmonary Evaluation Laboratory (NIPEL) as part of the NRLC); and Calu-3 Cell Culture Studies under the direction of Yan Zhu, M.D. Research was compounded with activities including visits to the Operating Room, Catheterization Laboratory, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), working in a specially designated cell-culture room, and visits to the hospital clinic to interact with patients and clinical staff. My primary focus was on the methodology and history of the Calu-3 cells used by the NRLC.


Tammy Mulrooney; Justin Jesse; Bobbie Boyce; and Carol Barone
Delaware Technical & Community College, Histotechnology Core Lab /  Nemours, Wilmington DE 19803
Laser microdissection (LMD) is best performed on frozen sections. Routine staining of paraffin embedded tissue can compromise results. Upholding the integrity of the RNA can be difficult because it is easily degraded by staining components which affect both the quality and yield of total RNA produced with staining for LMD. This project focuses on the use of histochemical stains as a possible staining option, verses unstained or routinely stained muscle tissue for LMD.  Using standard techniques for the preparation of RNA on frozen tissue, we offer a modified histochemical staining protocol for use with LMD and to determine the affect of histochemical stains on the quality and yield of RNA with LMD.  The author would like to thank INBRE (Grant No. 2P20RR016472-09) for their support of this project.

Ankle Motions of Individuals with Hemiparesis in Response to Electrical Stimulation during Walking: a four-footswitch

Thorne-FitzGerald, Dylan J. 1; Kesar, Trisha M.2; Binder-Macleod, Stuart A.2
1Department of Health, Nutrition and Exercise Science and 2Department of Physical Therapy, University of Delaware

Individuals who experience a stroke have paresis on one side of their body, which results in asymmetrical walking patterns. A gait training program that has recently been developed at UD, FastFES, combines fast walking on a treadmill with functional electrical stimulation (FES) of the paretic ankle muscles to improve the quality, speed, and efficiency of stroke patients’ gait.  FES is delivered based on events of the gait cycle, relayed by footswitch sensors attached to the patients’ shoe.  The current footswitch setup for FES uses two footswitches, one under the heel and one under the toe.  However, we recently observed that with the current two footswitch setup, dorsiflexion stimulation was initiated while the foot was still on the ground, before true toe-off occured.  Due to this premature onset of dorsiflexion stimulation with the two-footswitch setup, the ankle plantarflexion angles at toe-off were adversely affected. Thus, in the current study, to improve the accuracy of delivery of dorsiflexor stimulation, we are testing a novel footswitch setup consisting of four footswitches one under the heel and three footswitches under the forefoot.   Walking patterns of 5 post-stroke individuals will be compared during walking with FES using the four- versus two-footswitch setups. The findings of this study will help determine the best method to accurately time the delivery of FES during the gait training program.  *Funding for this work was provided by NIH Grant R01 NR010786 and the University of Delaware Life Sciences Undergraduate Research Program .

L-arginine and microvascular function in chronic kidney disease.

Wuroh Timbo, Jennifer DuPont, and David G. Edwards
Department of Healkth, Nutrition and Exercise Science

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of death in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Endothelial dysfunction is a characteristic of CKD, and has been demonstrated to lead to the progression of CKD and CVD. A major contributor to endothelial dysfunction is the vast increase in levels of asymmetric dimethyl-arginine (ADMA) which competes with L-arginine for nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in patients with CKD. The purpose of this study is to determine if a relative deficit of L-arginine contributes to a reduced NO mediated cutaneous vasodilation in patients with moderate to severe CKD. 6 subjects (3 CKD, 3 healthy control) were recruited for study participation. Red blood cell flux is measured via laser Doppler flometry with local heating coupled with 3 intradermal microdialysis sites on the ventral side of the forearm: Ringer’s solution (control), L-NAME (NOS inhibition), and L-arginine (treatment). A standard, non-painful heating protocol is used with baseline temperature set to 33° C, increased  0.5° C every 5 seconds until 42° C is obtained. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) is calculated as FLUX/MAP (mean arterial pressure) and normalized to maximal CVC (%CVCmax) achieved during 28mM sodium nitroprusside (Tloc 43° C ) infusion in all three MD sites. A 2 X 2 ANOVA will be used to compare %CVCmax between L-arginine and Ringer solution in the two groups. Funding was provided by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the McNair Scholars Program, and Grant DK80469.

Utilizing Resting Metabolic Rate to Evaluate Safe and Effective Weight Loss

Annette Torre, Simone Church, John Burrows, and Mark Lafferty
Delaware Technical & Community College

Most dieticians make dietary recommendations for total caloric intake base upon height and weight prediction equations.  Using indirect calorimetry to determine resting metabolic rate [RMR] we found that 74% [52/70] of the clients we tested were found to have an actual value which was lower than the predicted RMR value, indicating that direct assessment of RMR is superior to the use of prediction equations.  Strikingly, the use of overestimated prediction equations for caloric intake can adversely result in the addition of body fat mass [BFM] in clients and subsequent increases in their body mass index [BMI].  RMR values less than that predicted indicates a decrease of lean muscle mass [LMM].  This negative imbalance between LMM and BFM has been shown to have a direct correlation to the onset of Type II diabetes.   / We measured BMI and used indirect calorimetry to analyze RMR to determine the specific dietary caloric intake needs of our clients.  Clients with RMR values less than predicted were prescribe a higher percentage of resistance training exercises to increase their LMM and RMR. All subjects analyzed thus far demonstrated a decrease in BMI and an increase or stable RMR, indicating an increase in LMM.  Additionally, some subjects showed decreased dependency on prescribed medications. / Funding for this project was provided by NIH NCRR INBRE grant to Delaware 2P20RR016472. /

Links: Summer 2009 Undergraduate Research Symposium, Symposium Abstracts from other Colleges and Departments,
2009 Undergraduate Research Summer Enrichment ProgramUnversity of Delaware Undergraduate Research Program, Howard Hughes Undergraduate Program.
Created  7 August 2009. Last up dated 15 August 2009 by Hal White
Copyright 2009, University of Delaware