Lynn Snyder-Mackler, PT, ATC, SCS, ScD  Professor

Department of Physical Therapy 
University of Delaware 
309 McKinly Lab
Newark, DE 19716
Office:  (302) 831-3613
Fax:     (302) 831-4234
E-mail: smack@udel.edu
PROFESSIONAL RESEARCH ACADEMICS & OTHER
Education Current Research UD Courses Taught
Professional History Current Grants Doctoral Student Advising
Professional Organizations Selected Publications Service
Honors & Awards Selected Presentations Clinical Practice
Service PT Research Labs Former PhD Students
Resources for Undergraduate Researchers


EDUCATION
  • Sc.D. in Applied Anatomy and Physiology from Boston University, Boston, MA 1990 
  • M.S. in Organizational Behavior from The University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 1984
  • P.G. Cert. in Physical Therapy from The University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 1980 
  • B.A. in Quantitative Studies from The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 1978 
PROFESSIONAL HISTORY PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATIONS/SOCIETIES


SELECTED PUBLICATIONS
Articles in Peer-Reviewed Journals (selected 1991 to present):

    Snyder-Mackler L, Ladin Z, Schepsis AA, Young JC: Electrical stimulation of thigh muscles after reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. J Bone Joint Surg 73-A:1025-1036, 1991

    Snyder-Mackler L, Binder-Macleod SA, Williams PR: Fatigueabilityof human quadriceps femoris muscle following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Med Sci Sports Exer 25:783-789, 1993

    Binder-Macleod SA, Snyder-Mackler L: Muscle fatigue: Clinical implications for fatigue assessment and neuromuscular electrical stimulation.Phys Ther 73:902-910, 1993

    Snyder-Mackler L, De Luca PF, Williams PR, Eastlack ME, Bartolozzi AR: Reflex inhibition after injury or reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament.J Bone Joint Surg 76-A: 555-560, 1994

    Snyder-Macker L, Delitto A, Stralka SW, Bailey S: Use of Electrical Stimulation to Enhance Recovery of Quadriceps Femoris Muscle Force Production in PatientsFollowing Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction. Phys Ther 74:901-907, 1994

    Snyder-Macker L, Delitto A, Bailey S, Stralka SW: Quadriceps Femoris Muscle Strength and Functional Recovery After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Prospective Randomized Clinical Trial of Electrical Stimulation. J Bone Joint Surg 77-A:1166-1173, 1995

    Delitto A, Snyder-Mackler L: The Process of Clinical Classification in Physical Therapy. Phys Ther 75:203-211, 1995

    Snyder-Mackler L, Fitzgerald GK, Bartolozzi AR, Ciccotti MG: Passive joint laxity and functional outcome after anterior cruciate ligament injury.Am J Sports Med 25:191-195,1997.

    Axe MJ, Snyder-Mackler L, Konin J, Strube MJ: Development of a distance based interval throwing program for Little LeagueTM age athletes Am J Sports Med 24:594-602, 1996 

    Manal TJ, Snyder-Mackler L: Practice guidelines for anterior cruciate ligament rehabilitation: A criterion-based rehabilitation program. Operative Techniques in Orthopaedics 6:190-196, 1996

    Rudolph, K.S.; Eastlack, M.E.; Axe, M.J.; Snyder-Mackler, L. 1998 Basmajian Student Award Paper: Movement patterns after anterior cruciate ligament injury: a comparison of patients who compensate well for the injury and those who require operative stabilization.  J Electromyogr Kinesiol, 8(6): 349-362, 1998.

    Irrgang JJ, Snyder-Mackler L, Wainner RS, Fu F, Harner C: Development of a patient-reported measure of function for the knee.J Bone Joint Surg 80-A:1132-1145, 1998

    Fees M, Decker T, Snyder-Mackler L, Axe MJ. Upper Extremity Weight-Training Modifications for the Injured Athlete. Am J Sports Med 26:732-742, 1998.

    Eastlack ME, Axe MJ, Snyder-Mackler L: Laxity, Instability and Functional Outcome After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury:Copers versus Non-copers.Med Sci Sports Exer 1999 Feb;31(2):210-5. 

    Schmitt L, Snyder-Mackler L: Role of scapular stabilizers in etiology and treatment of impingement syndrome. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 1999 Jan;29(1):31-8

    Fitzgerald GK, Axe MJ, Snyder_Mackler L. The efficacy of perturbation training in nonoperative anterior cruciate ligament rehabilitation programs for physical active individuals. Phys Ther. 2000 Feb;80(2):128_40.

    Fitzgerald GK, Axe MJ, Snyder_Mackler L. Proposed practice guidelines for nonoperative anterior cruciate ligament rehabilitation of physically active individuals. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2000 Apr;30(4):194_203

    Fitzgerald GK, Axe MJ, Snyder_Mackler L. A decision_making scheme for returning patients to high_level activity with nonoperative treatment after anterior cruciate ligament rupture.

    Rudolph K.S., Axe, M.J., Snyder-Mackler, L.  Dynamic Stability in the ACL deficient knee: Who can hop?  Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc.  2000;8(5):262-9

    Manal TJ, Snyder-Mackler L.Failure of voluntary activation of the quadriceps femoris muscle after patellar contusion.J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2000 Nov;30(11):655-60; discussion 661-3.

    Stackhouse SK, Stevens JE, Lee SC, Pearce KM, Snyder-Mackler L, Binder-Macleod SA. Maximum voluntary activation in nonfatigued and fatigued muscle of young and elderly individuals. Phys Ther. 2001 May;81(5):1102-9.

    Axe MJ, Wickham R, Snyder-Mackler L. Data-based interval throwing programs for little league, high school, college, and professional baseball pitchers.Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review. 9:24-34, 2001.

    Rudolph K.S., Axe, M.J., Buchanan, T.S., Scholz, J.P., Snyder-Mackler, L.  Dynamic Stability in the ACL deficient knee.  Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2001;9(2):62-71

    Stevens JE, Binder-Macleod S, Snyder-Mackler L. Characterization of the human quadriceps muscle in active elders. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2001 Jul;82(7):973-8.

    Chmielewski, T.L., Rudolph, K.S., Fitzgerald, G.K., Axe, M.J., Snyder-Mackler, L.   Biomechanical Evidence Supporting a Differential Response to Acute ACL Injury.  Clinical Biomechanics.  2001 Aug;16(7):586-91.

    Lewek M, Stevens JE, Snyder-Mackler L.Use of electrical stimulation to increase quadriceps femoris muscle force in an elderly patient following a total knee arthroplasty. Phys Ther 81:1565-1571, 2001

    Williams, G.N., Chmielewski, T.L., Rudolph, K.S., Buchanan, T.S., Snyder-Mackler, L. Dynamic knee stability: Current theory and implications for clinicians and scientists. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, 2001 Oct;31(10):546-66).

    Axe MJ, Windley TC, Snyder-Mackler L.Data-Based Interval Throwing Programs for Baseball Position Players from Age 13 to College Levels.J Sports Rehabil. 10:255-274, 2001

    Lewek, M., Rudolph, K.S., Axe, M.J., Snyder-Mackler, L.  The effect of insufficient quad strength on gait after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.  Clin Biomech 2002 Jan, 17(1):56-63

CURRENT GRANTS
    Grant Number:5R01AR046386-03NIAMS. Project Title:ACL Deficient Knee-MRI and Biomechanical Modeling (PIBuchanan, Thomas S.) 01-JUN-1999 - 31-MAY-2004

    Grant Number:5R01HD037985-02NICHD Project Title:Dynamic Stability In The ACL Injured Knee (PISnyder-Mackler, Lynn) 08-FEB-2001 - 30-NOV-2004

    Grant Number:1R21HD040956-01NICHD Project Title:Smart Fluid Devices for Physical Rehabilitation(PI Katherine Rudolph) 17-SEP-2001 to 30-JUN-2004

    Grant Number:1P20RR016458-00003 NCRR Project Title:Osteoarthritis: prevention and treatment (PI Katherine Rudolph, co-PI Lynn Snyder-Mackler) 23-FEB-2002 - 31-JAN-2007

  • Grant Number: 1R01HD041055-01A1 NICHD Project Title: NMES for Older Individuals After Total Knee Arthroplasty (PI Snyder-Mackler, Lynn) 15-Mar-2002 - 28-FEB-2007
SELECTED PROFESSIONAL PRESENTATIONS

Invited Scientific and Research Presentations (1999-present):

                Regaining range of motion after sports injury. Invited Speaker. Second International Congress on Sports Rehabilitation and Sports Biomechanical Investigation.Perugia, Italy.January 1999.

    Return to sports after injury. Second International Congress on Sports Rehabilitation and Sports by Mechanical Investigation.Perugia, Italy.January 1999.

    The use of modalities: an American perspective. Invited Speaker. Second International Congress on Sports Rehabilitation and Sports Biomechanical Investigation.Perugia, Italy.January 1999.

    Rehabilitation of the throwing athlete.Invited Speaker. Second International Congress on Sports Rehabilitation and Sports Biomechanical Investigation.January 1999.

    Rehabilitation after surgical treatment of PCL injuries. Invited Speaker. Second International Congress on Sports Rehabilitation and Sports Biomechanical Investigation.Perugia, Italy.January 1999.

    Electrotherapy: pain control. Invited Speaker. XII Congreso National de Kinesiologia. Santiago, Chile. May 1999.

    Electrotherapy: neuromuscular electrical stimulation. Invited Speaker. XII Congreso National de Kinesiologia. Santiago, Chile. May 1999.

    Electrotherapy: tissue repair. Invited Speaker. XII Congreso National de Kinesiologia. Santiago, Chile. May 1999.

    Return to the Weight Room After Injury. Invited Speaker. 22nd National Conference of the National Strength and Conditioning Association. Kansas City, MO, June 1999

    Muscular and Mechanical Adaptations to ACL Injury. Invited Speaker and Symposium.Organizer, International Society of Biomechanics XVIIth Congress. Calgary, Alberta Canada, August 1999

    Motion analysis and prediction of ACL deficient patient outcome. Invited Speaker. Third International Congress on Sports Rehabilitation and Sports Biomechanical Investigation.Perugia, Italy.December 1999.

    Rehabilitation after Bone-patellar-tendon bone ACL reconstruction. Third International Congress on Sports Rehabilitation and Sports by Mechanical Investigation.Perugia, Italy.December 1999.

    Measurement of strength after ACL reconstruction. Invited Speaker. Third International Congress on Sports Rehabilitation and Sports Biomechanical Investigation.Perugia, Italy.December 1999.

    Rehabilitation after open Bankart repair.Invited Speaker. Third International Congress on Sports Rehabilitation and Sports Biomechanical Investigation. December1999.

    Proprioception and Neuromuscular Control of the Lower Extremity. Invited Speaker. Injuries in Baseball Conference, Tampa, FL, January 2000

    Conditioning Program for the Softball Player. Invited Speaker. Injuries in Baseball Conference, Tampa, FL, January 2000.

    Restoring Lower Extremity Proprioception and Neuromuscular control. Invited Speaker. Injuries in Baseball Conference, Tampa, FL, January 2000.

    Rehabilitation of the Unstable shoulder. Invited Speaker. Norwegian Society of Physical Medicine, Sandefjord, Norway, March 2000.

    Dynamic Knee Stability.Invited Speaker. Norwegian Society of Physical Medicine, Sandefjord, Norway, March 2000

    Return to play following ACL reconstructionInvited Speaker.The Panther Sports Medicine Symposium.The Knee: A New Millennium from Robotics to Gene Therapy.May 2000.Pittsburgh PA.

    Dynamic Stability in the ACL Deficient and Reconstructed Knee.Invited Speaker.The Panther Sports Medicine Symposium.The Knee: A New Millennium from Robotics to Gene Therapy.May 2000.Pittsburgh PA.

    Shoulder Rehabilitation in Sport. Invited Speaker. Swedish Society for Sports Medicine Annual Meeting. Stockholm, Sweden, May 2000

    Screening test and rehabilitation guidelines for completing an athletic season after ACL rupture. Invited Speaker. Swedish Society for Sports Medicine Annual Meeting. Stockholm, Sweden, May 2000

    Rehabilitation for patellofemoral pain. Invited Speaker. Swedish Society for Sports Medicine Annual Meeting. Stockholm, Sweden, May 2000

    Rehabilitation after thermal capsulorrhaphy. Current Concepts in the Treatment and Rehabilitation of Sports Injuries 2000 University of Vermont Sports Medicine Conference, Burlington, VT September 2000

    Principles for Non-surgical Treatment of Shoulder Injuries. Current Concepts in the Treatment and Rehabilitation of Sports Injuries 2000 University of Vermont Sports Medicine Conference, Burlington, VT September 2000

    Rehabilitation of Muscle Injuries. Current Concepts in the Treatment and Rehabilitation of Sports Injuries 2000 University of Vermont Sports Medicine Conference, Burlington, VT September 2000

    Screening Test and Rehab guidelines for Completing a Season after Early Season ACL Rupture. Current Concepts in the Treatment and Rehabilitation of Sports Injuries 2000 University of Vermont Sports Medicine Conference, Burlington, VT September 2000

    Rehabilitation After ACL Surgery. How Aggressive Can We Be? ISAKOS Congress, Montreaux Switzerland, May 2001

    Outcomes Measures in Clinical ResearchISAKOS Congress, Montreaux Switzerland, May 2001

    Optimal Loading of the ACL graft During RehabilitationACSM Baltimore, MD May 30-June 2, 2001

    Dynamic Stability in the ACL Deficient Knee. Norwegian Sports Physical Therapy Congress, Tonsberg, Norway, June 2001

    Neuromuscular Control and Dynamic Stability of the Shoulder Norwegian Sports Physical Therapy Congress, Tonsberg, Norway, June 2001

    CNS Control of the ACL Deficient Knee.The Many Faces of Osteoarthritis. Tahoe City, CA June 2001

    Electrical Stimulation for Tendinitis. Fifth International Congress on Sports Rehabilitation and Sports Biomechanical Investigation.Perugia, Italy.December 2001.

    Iliotibial Band Friction Syndrome. Fifth International Congress on Sports Rehabilitation and Sports Biomechanical Investigation.Perugia, Italy.December 2001.

    Why ACL deficient athletes respond differently in biomechanical. Fifth International Congress on Sports Rehabilitation and Sports Biomechanical Investigation.Perugia, Italy.December 2001.

Slide and Poster Presentations (1999-present):
  •             Fitzgerald GK, Axe MJ, Snyder-Mackler L: A comparison of two non-operative rehabilitation programs for eatly return to high-level activity after ACL injury. Slide Presentation at 1999 APTA Combined Sections Meeting Seattle, WA. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 29:A-23, 1999
  • Rudolph KS, Axe MJ, Snyder-Mackler L: Dynamic stability after ACL injury: Who can hop and who cannot? Slide Presentation at 1999 APTA Combined Sections Meeting Seattle, WA. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 29:A-45, 1999

    Stevens J, Binder-Macleod SA, Snyder-Mackler L: Characterization of the Quadriceps Muscle in Active Elders. Slide Presentation at 1999 APTA Combined Sections Meeting Seattle, WA. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 29:A-45, 1999

    Manal TJ, Snyder-Mackler L: Slide Presentation at 1999 APTA Combined Sections Meeting Seattle, WA. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 29:A-45, 1999

    Lee SA, Pearce K, Snyder-Mackler L, Binder-Macleod: Maximum Voluntary Recruitment in Fresh and Fatigued Muscle of Young and Elder IndividualsFASEB Journal Vol 13(5), p. A690, #514.10. Experimental Biology ‘99, Washington, D. C., April 17-21, 1999

    Snyder-Mackler L, Fitzgerald GK, Rudolph KR, Axe M Dynamic Stability after ACL Injury, Slide presentation at the Annual Meeting of the National Athletic Trainers Association, Kansas City, MO, June 1999.

    Chmielewski T, Manal T, Rudolph KS, Snyder-Mackler L, The Effects of Perturbation Training on Walking and Jogging Performance of Patients with Acute ACLInjury International Society of Biomechanics XVIIth Congress. Calgary, Alberta Canada, August 1999

    Chmielewski T, Wilk K, Snyder-Mackler L. Assessment of Weight-Bearing Patterns in Anterior Cruciate LigamentDeficient and Surgically Reconstructed Patients Using the NeurCom Balance Master. APTA Combined Sections Meeting, New Orleans, LA Feb 2000.

    Chmielewski T, Stackhouse S, Binder-Macleod S, Snyder-Mackler L. Predicting Maximal Voluntary Isometric Contraction (MVIC) of the Quadriceps from Submaximal Contraction After ACL Injury. American College of Sports Medicine 47th Annual Meeting, Indianapolis.6/2000

    Lewek M, Stevens J, Snyder-Mackler L: NMES for quadriceps femoris muscle
    strengthening after a total knee arthroplasty: a case study. APTA Combined Sections Meeting, New Orleans, LA Feb 2000.

    Dougherty S, Manal T, Snyder-Mackler L High Intensity Electrical Stimulation for Pain Management APTA Annual Meeting, Indianapolis, IN June 2000

    Lewek M, Rudolph K, Axe MJ, Snyder-Mackler, L. The Effect of Quadriceps Weakness on Gait after ACL Reconstruction. ACSM, Baltimore, MD, May 30 -June 2, 2001.

    Chmielewski T, Rudolph KS, Snyder-Mackler L. The Effect of Perturbation Training on Lower Extremity Muscle Activation During Walking and Jogging in Patients with Acute ACL Injury. American Physical Therapy Association Combined Sections Meeting, San Antonio, TX. 2/01.

    Stackhouse SK, Johnson CD, Stevens JE, Snyder-Mackler L, Binder-Macleod S. Predictability of maximum voluntary quadriceps force from submaximal contractions in the elderly. APTA Combined Sections Meeting, San Antonio, TX. February 2001.

    Chmielewski T, Rudolph KS, Snyder-Mackler L. Movement Patterns of Individuals with Good Potential to Dynamically Stabilize their Knee After ACL Rupture. “The Many Faces of Osteoarthritis”, Lake Tahoe, CA, 6/01

    Stevens JE, Snyder-Mackler L.Quadriceps Inhibition and Weakness after Total Knee Arthroplasty; Association of Rheumatology Health Professionals, San Francisco November 2001.

    Stevens JE, Mizner RL, Hingston S, Nardone M, Snyder-Mackler L. Quadriceps Weakness and Inhibition Before and After Total Knee Arthroplasty. NIH Training Workshop, National Center for Medical Rehabilitation Research, December 2001.

    Lewek M, Rudolph KS, Snyder-Mackler L.Lower Extremity Neuromuscular Response to a Rapid Valgus Movement at the Knee During Standing. NIH Training Workshop, National Center for Medical Rehabilitation Research, December 2001.

HONORS & AWARDS

SERVICE
  • Editorial Boards 
    • Journal of Orthopedic and Sports Physical Therapy
    • Journal of Sports Rehabilitation
    • Physical Therapy in Sport
  • Manuscript Reviewer 
    • Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery
    • Physical Therapy
    • Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
    • Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology and Arthroscopy
    • Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
    Study Sections and Grant Review Panels:
      NIDRR - Grant Review Panel, March 1995

      NIH Clinical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel July 1996- 1999

      NIH Geriatric and Rehabilitation Medicine Study Section Oct 2000

    • Research Advisory Committee - Foundation for Physical Therapy (1997-1999)
  • 100th Olympiad, Atlanta GA 1996, Chief Athletic Trainer, Beach Volleyball Venue
  • Governors Council on Lifestyles and Fitness 
  • Positions Held in Scientific/Professional/Honorary Societies:

    American Physical Therapy Association

      Advisory Panel on Research, from 1997 to 2000
    American Physical Therapy Association Section on Research
      Chairperson, Nominating Committee, from 1987 to 1989

      Treasurer, from 1989 to 1993

      Executive Committee, from 1991 to 1993 and 1995 to present

      Strategic Planning Committee, from 1991 to present

      President Elect,from 1995 to 1996

      President, from 1996-1999

      Past President 1999-present

    American Physical Therapy Association Sports Physical Therapy Section
      President, Knee Special Interest Group, from 1994 to 1997
    American Board of Physical Therapy Specialties
      Specialty Council for Clinical Electrophysiology

      Chairperson, from 1987 to June 1991

    American Physical Therapy Association Section on Clinical Electrophysiology
    • Task force on Electrotherapy Standards, from 1986 to 1991, 1996-1999

CURRENT COURSES TAUGHT

CURRENT RESEARCH

ACL Deficient Knee:  MRI and Biomechanical Modeling
Funding:  National Institutes of Health R01- AR46386 (PI T. Buchanan) - commenced 6/99
 
   This project examines the ACL deficient knee via cine-phase contrast MRI and biomechanical modeling. Cine-phase contrast MRI allows us to examine the kinematics of the knee and the lengths of the tendons dynamically. Patient-specific biomechanical models allow us to estimate the forces in the ligaments and muscles. Combining these two powerful novel techniques will allow us to investigate whey some ACL deficient patients (copers) are able to adjust well, returning to active sports with any surgical intervention, while other patients (non-copers) do poorly and require surgery.


Dynamic Stability in the ACL Injured Knee
Funding:  National Institutes of Health R01-HD37985 - commenced 2/01
 
The overall goal of this work is to develop more effective, physiologically based, non-operative rehabilitation programs to dynamically stabilize the knee after anterior cruciate ligament rupture. Some individuals can stabilize their knees following ACL rupture even during activities involving cutting and pivoting while others have instability with daily activities (non-copers). Physiological responses and motor control strategies for copers are different from non-copers. Rehab that includes purposeful perturbation of support surfaces results in superior return to activity in potential copers. The proposed experiments are designed to answer these questions: How does the training promote dynamic knee stability? Can adding perturbation training to a vigorous rehabilitation program improve function in non-copers who elect non-operative management? 

Knee Alignment And The Progression Of Osteoarthritis
Funding:  National Institutes of Health  (P20 RR16458-01-00003) commenced 2/02
 
     This 5-year study will determine the effect of restoring normal anatomic realignment of the tibiofemoral joint on movement and muscle activity patterns in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) in the knee. 

     Patients who are undergoing opening wedge osteotomy to correct genuvarum will be tested in the Motion Analysis Laboratory (see left) to determine if their muscles are activated differently when the knee is subjected to a valgus stress or if their movement and muscle activity patterns change during walking, as a result of the reduction of the laxity and pseudolaxity associated with genuvarum. Testing will take place before surgery and after surgery at various intervals. 

     The intention is to determine if the restoration of normal anatomical alignment will result in normal function and whether changes in walking and muscle activation are consistent with conditions that reduce the progression of OA.



NMES for Older Individuals After Total Knee Arthroplasty
 Funding:  National Institutes of Health  (RO1HD041055) commenced 3/02
 Muscle weaknes from illness or injuries often leads to loss of function and independence in the elderly. The recovery of muscle strength and function in disabled elderly individuals is a major challenge in rehabilitation. Training programs designed to maximize strength gains in young individuals may not be optimal in the elderly because the cause of the weakness and the morphology of the muscle is different for young vs. old people. The overall goal of this work is to determine if physiologically and morphologically based rehabilitation programs are more effective than traditional rehabilitation to counter changes in muscle strength and function in older individuals. We posit that using NMES to augment a traditional rehabilitation program for elderly patients with osteoarthritis following total knee arthroplasties (TKA) will result in greater strength and functional gains than using only traditional rehabilitation.

CLINICAL PRACTICE
Dr. Snyder-Mackler’s clinical practice is concentrated in the areas of sports related knee and shoulder injury. She can be consulted by contacting the University of Delaware Physical Therapy Clinic.

DOCTORAL STUDENT ADVISING (Current)

  • Doctoral Advisor:
    • Michael Lewek 
    • Glenn Williams
    • Ryan Mizner (precandidacy)
    • Tara Jo Manal (precandidacy)
    • Stephanie Petterson (precandidacy)
    • Wendy Hurd (precandidacy)
  • PhD Dissertation Committee Member
    • Peter Barrance, Mechanical Engineering, (Advisor Thomas Buchanan)
    • Michael Higgins, Biomechanics and Movement Sciences, (Advisor David Barlow)
    • Scott Stackhouse, (Advisor Stuart Binder-Macleod)
    • Laura C. Schmitt, (precandidacy, Advisor Katy Rudolph)
FORMER PhD STUDENTS

 
302 McKinly Lab| University of Delaware | Newark, DE 19716 | phone 302-831-3613| fax 302-831-4234
Comments to: smack@udel.edu