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Beneath Thy Guiding Hand

Endnotes

Chapter One
THE BEGINNINGS

  1. The Delaware College Review, November 1888.
  2. Thomas Woody, A History of Women's Education in the United States (New York: The Science Press, 1929), II, p. 251.
  3. Minutes, Board of Trustees, July 2, 1872, University of Delaware Archives.
  4. John A. Munroe, The University of Delaware: A History (Newark: University of Delaware, 1986), p. 133.
  5. Minutes, Board of Trustees, June 17, 1873.
  6. Ibid., June 25,1873.
  7. Gloria Marie Dean Bockrath, "Student Recruitment at Delaware College During the Purnell Era, 1870-1885," Master's Thesis, University of Delaware, 1977, p. 31.
  8. The University News, June 1944, IX, 6.
  9. No Name manuscript periodical, March 1881. University of Delaware Archives.
  10. The Review, November 1884.
  11. No Name, March 1881.
  12. Ibid., May 1881.
  13. Ibid., February 1882.
  14. Wilmington Every Evening and Commercial, June 19, 1877.
  15. The Review, May 1885.
  16. Ibid., July 1885.
  17. Minutes, Board of Trustees, June 24, 1885.
  18. Bockrath, p. 40.
  19. Catalogue of The Pestalozzi Literary Society of Delaware College (Newark, 1886).


Chapter Two
REFORM
  1. Louise Staton Johnson, Autobiography, Manuscript in the University of Delaware Archives.
  2. The Aurora, 1899, University of Delaware Archives.
  3. Minutes, Board of Trustees, 1907.
  4. Karen J. Blair, The Clubwoman as Feminist: True Womanhood Redefined: 1868-1914 (New York, 1980).
  5. For a fuller discussion of the Wilmington New Century Club, see Gail Stanislow, "Domestic Feminism In Wilmington: The New Century Club, 1889-1917," Delaware History, XXII, 3, pp. 158-185.
  6. President George A. Harter to Mrs. A. D. Warner, Newark, Delaware, February 2, 1912.
  7. State of Delaware, Journal of the House of Representatives, 1913, p. 690.
  8. Warner Scrapbook, University of Delaware Archives.
  9. Delaware College Board of Trustees Resolution, August 6, 1913, Warner Scrapbook, University of Delaware Archives.
  10. Winifred J. Robinson to Mrs. Mathews, New York, August 23, 1913, University of Delaware Archives.
  11. Winifred J. Robinson to Mrs. A. D. Warner, Poughkeepsie, New York, November 2, 1913, Warner Scrapbook, University of Delaware Archives.
  12. E. P Warner to W J. Robinson, Wilmington, Delaware, November 17, 1913, W J. Robinson Papers, University of Delaware Archives.
  13. Interview with Helen Baylis, October 5, 1987.
  14. Katherine F. Puncheon, Vice Principal of the Philadelphia High School for Girls, to Judge Herbert Rice, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, October 30, 1913, W. J. Robinson Papers, University of Delaware Archives.
  15. Warner Scrapbook, University of Delaware Archives.
  16. G. A. Harter to W. J. Robinson, Newark, Delaware, November 11, 1913, Warner Scrapbook, University of Delaware Archives.
  17. Wilmington newspaper clipping, undated, Spring 1914, Warner Scrapbook, University of Delaware Archives.
  18. Ibid.
  19. Ibid.


Chapter Three
THE COLLEGE
  1. Newark Post, October 14, 1914, Warner Scrapbook, University of Delaware Archives.
  2. Ibid.
  3. Bulletin of the Women's College of Delaware, I, 1, 1914-1915, University of Delaware Archives.
  4. John A. Munroe, The University of Delaware: A History, pp. 229-236.
  5. Ibid., p. 243.
  6. Undated newspaper article, ca. 1935, Warner Scrapbook, University of Delaware Archives.
  7. W J. Robinson to Isca, undated letter, W J. Robinson Papers, University of Delaware Archives.
  8. Interview with Helen Baylis, October 5, 1987.
  9. Interview with Camilla Day, April 20,1991.
  10. W J. Robinson to Viola Smith, undated, W J. Robinson Papers, University of Delaware Archives.
  11. Helen Lefkowitz Horowitz, Alma Mater (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1984), p. 147.
  12. The Chronicle, 1918, University of Delaware Archives.
  13. Letters to W J. Robinson and Baylis interview.
  14. W J. Robinson to Mrs. R. W Claiborne, January 30, 1930, Hullihen Papers, University of Delaware Archives.
  15. Robert J. Taggart, Private Philanthropy and Public Education, Pierre & du Pont and the Delaware Schools, 1890-1940 (Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1988) pp. 48-53, 74.
  16. Taggart, p. 103.
  17. W J. Robinson "Report to the Committee On The Women's College," May 17,1935, Hullihen Papers, University of Delaware Archives.
  18. On the development of Home Economics as a Women's Field" that allowed women a special but inferior place in science, see Laura Shapiro, Perfection Salad, Women and Cooking at the Turn of the Century (New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1986), and Margaret W Rossiter, Women Scientists in America, Struggles and Strategies in 1940 (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1982).
  19. Report of the Women's College, May 1931, Hullihen Papers, University of Delaware Archives.
  20. W J. Robinson to W Hullihen, June 9, 1933, Hullihen Papers, University of Delaware Archives.
  21. Women's College Statement, 1930, Ditto Lewis Papers, University of Delaware Archives.
  22. Amy Rextrew to W J. Robinson, March 31, 1933, Hullihen Papers, University of Delaware Archives.
  23. W J. Robinson to A. G. Wilkinson, September 13, 1934, Hullihen Papers, University of Delaware Archives.
  24. Amy Rextrew report to W J. Robinson, October 4, 1933, W J. Robinson Papers, University of Delaware Archives.
  25. W J. Robinson to Frank M. Jones, December 19, 1936, W J. Robinson Papers, University of Delaware Archives.
  26. Walter Hullihen to Dorothy Hawkins, March 22, 1930, Ditto Lewis Papers, University of Delaware Archives.


Chapter Four
MERGER
  1. Warner Scrapbook, May 16,1935, newspaper clipping.
  2. Ibid., undated newspaper clipping (1938?).
  3. Warner Scrapbook, W J. Robinson speech, April 23, 1938.
  4. W Hullihen to James M. Hillman, March 1, 1928, Hullihen Papers, University of Delaware Archives.
  5. W. J. Robinson to Frank M. Jones, December 19, 1936, W J. Robinson Papers, University of Delaware Archives.
  6. Jeannette E. Graustein to Walter Hullihen, December 8, 1932, Hullihen Papers, University of Delaware Archives.
  7. Unidentified newspaper clipping, dated April 17, 1931, William Ditto Lewis file, University of Delaware Archives.
  8. Interview with Anna J. DeArmond, January 16, 1989.
  9. Interview with Elizabeth Bohning, October 31, 1988.
  10. Horowitz, Alma Mater pp. 196-197.
  11. Ibid., p. 293.
  12. Patricia Albjerg Graham, 'Expansion and Exclusion: A History of Women In American Higher Education," Signs 3, 4, (Summer 1978), pp. 759-773.
  13. Interview with Matilda Wish Hutchison, December 9, 1988.
  14. Munroe, p. 331.
  15. W 0. Sypherd to Warren C. Newton, August 10, 1944, Sypherd Papers, University of Delaware Archives.
  16. Quaesita Drake to W. 0. Sypherd, September 1944, Sypherd Papers, University of Delaware Archives.
  17. Amy Rextrew to Trustees' Committee, August 30, 1944, Sypherd Papers, University of Delaware Archives.
  18. Jeannette E. Graustein to I. Pilling Wright, Chairman, Committee on Sa1ary Scale and University Administrative Structure, September 1, 1944, Sypherd Papers, University of Delaware Archives.
  19. H. Clay Reed to W. 0. Sypherd, September 1,1944, Sypherd Papers, University of Delaware Archives.
  20. University of Delaware Annual Report, 1948, Report of Dean of Women, Amy Rextrew.
  21. Interview with Anna J. DeArmond, January 16, 1989.


Chapter Five
CO-EDUCATION
  1. University of Delaware Annual Report, 1946.
  2. Gwendolyn S. Crawford Papers, University of Delaware Archives.
  3. The Blue Hen, University of Delaware Yearbook, 1946-47.
  4. William Henry Chafe, The American Woman, Her Changing Social, Economic, and Political Roles, 1920-1970 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1972), p. 194.
  5. Ibid., p. 187.
  6. Lynn White, Jr., Educating Our Daughters (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1950).
  7. The Blue Hen, 1946-47.
  8. Teresa L. Riesmeyer, "Marriage, Career, or Both?: Women's Educational Choices in the 1940s," Seminar paper, May 1992, Interview by the author with Frances C. Megson, April 26, 1992.
  9. Munroe, p. 371.
  10. Interview with Anna J. DeArmond, January 16, 1989.
  11. University of Delaware Annual Report, 1964-65.
  12. Laurette A. Crum, "Women's Choice of Academic Major at the University of Delaware From 1958 to 1987," Seminar paper, May 1992.
  13. University of Delaware Annual Report, 1961-62.
  14. Bessie B. Collins Papers, University of Delaware Archives. The work of the committee was featured in an article in University News, an alumni publication in September 1963.
  15. Marion K. Sanders, "A Proposition For Women," Harper's Magazine, September 1960.
  16. Bessie B. Collins Papers, University of Delaware Archives.
  17. Board of Trustees Docket, Fall 1960, University of Delaware Archives.
  18. Interview with Barbra Frank Andrisani, July 1, 1992.
  19. Munroe, p. 385.
  20. Ibid., p. 383.
  21. Interview with Ross Ann Jenny Craig, June 29, 1992.
  22. Bessie B. Collins, Dean of Women's Annual Report, 1967.


Chapter Six
REVIVAL
  1. Natalie Gittelson, "Co-Ed Dorms," McCall's Magazine, September 1979, p. 14.
  2. Record Group 16, 'Advisors-Duties" file, Archives.
  3. University of Delaware Annual Report ,1966-67.
  4. Board of Trustees Docket 1965-66, University of Delaware Archives.
  5. Association of Women Students minutes, January 11, 1967, University of Delaware Archives.
  6. The Blue Hen, 1968.
  7. Students For a Democratic Society file, University of Delaware Archives.
  8. Ibid.
  9. The Blue Hen, 1968.
  10. Edward E Spencer, rough draft of report to Stuart Sharkey, Director of Residence Life, October26, 1970, papers in possession of Stuart Sharkey.
  11. Ibid.
  12. Interview with Stuart Sharkey, June 7, 1992.
  13. The Association, Association of Women Students Newsletter, December 1968.
  14. Interview with Ross Ann Jenny Craig, June 29, 1992.
  15. Hester R. Stewart, et al., Women In Delaware: A Documented Profile, December 1988, p. 11.
  16. Interview with Mae Carter, August 13, 1987.
  17. The Decade Ahead Report of the Community Design Planning Commission, University of Delaware Archives, 1971, Vol. II, Part I, p.15.
  18. K. H. Dahl, "Report on Women at the University of Delaware," 1971.
  19. Ibid., p. 6.
  20. "Women at the University of Delaware." Report to the President from the Advisory Committee on Policies, Programs and Services Affecting Women Students, Faculty and Staff January 13, 1972.
  21. Ibid., p. 25.
  22. Matina Horner, "Fail: Bright Women," Psychology Today November 1969, 3, pp. 36-38, 62.
  23. Commission on the Status of Women Annual Report to the President, April1975.
  24. Ibid.
  25. Interview with Barbara Kelly, October 1988.
  26. Interview with David Nelson, July20, 1989.
  27. Interview with Mary Ann Hitchens, August 9, 1989


Chapter Seven
UNFINISHED BUSINESS
  1. The Review, March 6, 1984.
  2. Commission on the Status of Women Annual Report to the President, 1984-1985.
  3. Ibid.
  4. Statistical tables supplied by University's Office of Institutional Research, EE0-6 Summary (full-time only) FY 1975-1985, and Black Students by Ethnic Category and Sex.
  5. Laurette A. Crum, "Women's Choice of Academic Major at the University of Delaware from 1958 to 1987."
  6. Interview with Irma Ayers, December 12, 1988.
  7. Interview with Barbara Settles, September 12, 1989.
  8. Interview with Edith Anderson, August 31,1989.
  9. The Review, April24, 1992.
  10. Ibid.
  11. Commission on the Status of Women Annual Report to the President, 1990-1991.
  12. Florence Geis, Mae Carter and Dore Butler, Seeing and Evaluating People, 1982.
  13. Ibid.
  14. Alice 5. Rossi, "Barriers to the Career Choice of Engineering, Medicine or Science Among American Women," in Jacquelyn A. Mattfeld and Carol G. Van Aken, Women and the Science Professions (Cambridge, Massachusetts, M.I.T. Press, 1968), pp. 108-111, quoted in Laurette A. Crum, "Women's Choice of Academic Majors," seminar paper, May 1992.
  15. Interview with Barbara Kelly, October 1988.