CRJU110 Exam III Study Guide


As always, this guide is intended to supplement a thorough of study of assigned chapters (12-15) and a careful review of notes. All True/False items from exams I and II are included some of which will appear on exam III.



  1. The prohibition against excessive bail is guaranteed by the ____________ Amendment.


  2. Which of the following is generally not a consideration in bail setting?


  3. The use of bail as a mechanism for punishing defendants is an abuse of


  4. In the 10 percent cash bond plans,


  5. After the American Revolution, the grand jury was incorporated into the ____________ Amendment of the Constitution.


  6. With respect to grand juries, the Supreme Court has ruled that


  7. When a grand jury exercises its ____________, witnesses who refuse to testify may be jailed.


  8. Refusing to enter a plea results in a plea of



  9. A plea of statute of limitations must be entered at the ____________; otherwise, the accused will be deemed to have waived that particular defense.


10. The motion for discovery is a request to


11. The motion for ____________ request details about what the prosecution claims in order to give the accused fair notice of what must be defended.


12. The right to a trial by jury was extended to the states by


13. The venire is


14. In the ____________ , an objection to a prospective juror can be made and no legal reason for doing so need be assigned.


15. During the trial, the "surrebuttal" is made by the


16. A motion for a new trial can be based on grounds that


17. ____________ seeks to make the punishment fit the crime.


18. General deterrence seeks to


19. The philosophy behind the indeterminate sentence


20. Which of the following is not a major reason for sentencing disparities?


21. When the framers of the Constitution incorporated the ban against cruel and unusual punishment into the Bill of Rights, what they probably had in mind was


22. An analysis of executions under civil authority in the United States demonstrates that


23. ____________ was the first case in which the Supreme Court struck down a sentence as being "cruel and unusual."


24. Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, which organization was most significant in waging a war against the death penalty?


25. In McGautha v. California, the Supreme Court set back the movement to abolish capital punishment when it ruled that


26. In ____________, the High Court held that statutes that leave arbitrary and discriminatory discretion to juries in imposing death sentences violate the Eighth Amendment ban on cruel and unusual punishment.


27. In Coker v. Georgia, the Supreme Court held that


28. The denial of the right to counsel at trial would allow an appeal under the ____________ rule.


29. The ____________ doctrine holds that a denial of a federal constitutional right can at times be of insufficient magnitude to require a reversal of a conviction on appeal.


30. The object of the isolation or incapacitation punishment philosophy is


31. The colonial device that shackled a convicted slanderer by the feet to a wooden stake was known as the


32. Confinement in the ____________ in colonial days could be a highly serious punishment because, in addition to the humiliation it engendered, offenders could also be whipped, have their ears torn apart, or even be stoned to death.


33. The beginnings of the classical school of criminal law and criminology can be attributed to the work of


34. At the basis of the classical doctrine of criminal law and criminology was the notion that


35. The major flaw of the classical doctrine of criminal law was that


36. The idea behind the ____________ system was that confinement in an isolated cell would give the convict an opportunity to contemplate the evils of his past life, thereby leading him to resolve to reform his future conduct.


37. The characteristic feature at Eastern and Western Penitentiaries that epitomized the Pennsylvania correctional philosophy of the nineteenth century was


38. Under the ____________ system of prison labor, the contractor supplied the raw material and received the finished product, paying the prison a specified amount for each unit produced.


39. The HawesÄCooper Act of 1929


40. Recent data describing the characteristics of inmates of local jails suggest that these detainees


41. Most jails


42. The American prison system began in the city of


43. Under the ____________ system of prison labor, inmate production was supervised by prison officials, the manufactured goods were sold on the open market, and prisoners received a small share of the profits.


44. The silent system differed from the separate system of prison design in that


45. The Federal Bureau of Prisons was created in 1930 as a result of


46. "Total institutions" are places that


47. Which of the following is an incorrect statement regarding contemporary prison administration?


48. Because of the lack of means to carry out their custodial duties, most prison guards


49. As of 1975 when the Federal Bureau of Prisons completed its survey, most prisons in the United States


50. The earliest forms of inmate classification included separating


51. A(n) ____________ is a central receiving facility where offenders sentenced to a term of imprisonment are committed for orientation and classification.


52. Which of the following comments about vocational programs in prisons is inaccurate?


53. Although most prison rules evolved to promote order and safety, to ensure good health, and to prevent escapes, others evolved from


54. Our limited experience with coeducational prisons suggests that


55. "Prisonization" refers to the process whereby an inmate learns


56. Donald Clemmer's study of the prison community suggests that prisonization


57. Observations in prisons and the underworld suggest that the inmate code


58. Protective custody units (PCUs) are designed to house offenders


59. A Delaware study of same-gender sexual contacts reported that


60. Most prison inmates were sentenced for ____________ offenses.





Exam I True/False




71.       Persons involved in the criminal justice process can leave the system at all stages other than police.


72.       A “generic” model of the CJ system was used to express the differences between state systems and the federal system.


73.       Only the U.S. Supreme Court has the power to remand a case.


74.       Judges typically do not like having to use presentence-investigations, as they are said to be an “affront” to judicial independence.


75.       Fines are said to be criminogenic in the sense they tend to reduce incidents of economic deviance.


76.       Most cases enter the CJ system by way of proactive police efforts.


77.       Most criminologists agree that Paul Tappan’s legal definition of crime best captures the essence of their field of inquiry.


78.       According to the instructor, Natural Law is the only legal perspective that helps us solve historical social problems such as recism and sexism.


79.       The Fourth Amendment provides citizens of the U.S. a right against government search and seizure.


80.       A defendant’s rights to discovery include an alibi, the insanity defense, and the discovery of physical evidence.


81.       The “just compensation clause” is part of the Fifth Amendment.


82.       The rights to speedy trial and an impartial jury are part of the Sixth Amendment.


83.       Except for “starting the clock” on our “Sixth Amendment” rights to speedy trial, the booking phase of the criminal justice process can largely be ignored.


84.       If a defendant’s Miranda rights were not read at the time of arrest, they must be read at the initial appearance before a magistrate.


85.       A defendant typically chooses a jury trial (in contrast to a bench trial) when a technically legal decision is required.


86.       Most “strict constructionists agree that the U.S. Constitution should be interpreted in light of “evolving social standards.”

87.       Criminal law differs from civil law only in terms of rules of evidence.


88.       Traffic codes represent examples of “strict liability” crimes.


89.       An “affirmative defense” must be proven by a “preponderance of evidence.”


90.       Generally, the “collateral consequences” of a civil finding are more severe than those resulting from a criminal conviction.


91.       In a criminal trial, the primary function of the jury is to decide on the admissibility of the evidence.


92.       The problem of “telescoping” is typically associated with qualitative research techniques.


93.       According to the instructor, “qualitative” sources of crime related information are as important as “quantitative” sources.


94.       A case titled “Jones v. Delaware” is probably a criminal appeal.


95.       The Fourteenth Amendment applies only to criminal prosecutions at the Federal level.


96.       In the News Journal article, Felton woman sentenced to 9 years in Amish buggy accident, the defendant’s sentence was reduced as a function of “victim impact statements.”


97.       The “victim impact statements” mentioned above are typically used in the absence of appropriate sentencing guidelines.


98.       The Eighth Amendment ban on “Cruel and unusual punishment” applies exclusively to per se issues.


99.       The Sixth Amendment applies only to criminal cases.


100.     In its recent editorial, the News Journal takes strong issue with the Delaware Supreme Court’s refusal to make Delaware crime data public.






EXAM II  True/False



  1. As a general rule, sheriff’s departments have more enforcement powers in the Northern U.S. than in the Southern states.

  2. The findings of researchers in the “Kansas City Experiment” has led police managers to largely abandon proactive police patrols.

  3. Recent research has suggested that fear of crime is a different social phenomena (in terms of social and economic impact) than incidence of crime.

  4. According to Ruth Kownhauser, the notion of a subculture provides a powerful tool for understanding the nature of police cynicism.

  5. Victor Strecher’s stage model of police cynicism is, according to the instructor,  tautological and therefore virtually useless as an explanation for police cynicism.

  6. According to the instructor, police cynicism can best be explained by examining the kinds of people that seek out law enforcement positions.

  7. According to Strecher’s model, most police who quit law enforcement jobs do so during their first year of employment.

  8. According to the instructor, Illinois v. Gates can be viewed as a pro-police decision.

  9. Generally speaking, the States can make policies more restrictive than the federal government (e.g., requiring police to have probable cause in order to request permission for a consent search), but not less restrictive.

  10. When performing a “Stop and Frisk,” (Terry v. Ohio), police officers must reasonably believe that the person with whom he is dealing may be armed and dangerous.

  11. Delaware v. Prouse made police roadblocks illegal.

  12. Katz v. United States is best viewed as a right to privacy case.

  13. United States v. Leon makes searches more difficult for police.

  14. The Supreme Court has ruled that the use of subterfuge or trickery to elicit incriminating information from a suspect constitutes a custodial interrogation and is therefore bound by the holding in Miranda.

  15. A court cannot have both original jurisdiction and handle trials de novo.

  16. Special Masters are no longer used at the Federal level.

  17. The Rule of Four is the process by which the U.S. Supreme Court decides to schedule a case before the full court.

  18. A Writ of Mandamus is a command issues by a court to perform certain duty.

  19. The U.S. Supreme Court, unlike the Delaware Supreme Court, cannot give advisory opinions.

  20. The notion of a dual court system suggests that Federal Courts have general authority over state courts.

  21. Most of the problems of the lower courts (limited jurisdiction) have been solved by court unification programs.

  22. In Delaware, Family Court is a court of record.

  23. In Delaware, Superior Court is the ACourt of Last Resort@ for criminal cases.

  24. In Delaware, Superior Court handles involuntary civil commitments.

  25. In class, the instructor argued in basic support of the de novo system.

  26. According to the instructor, video cameras have largely replaced court stenographers.

  27. Most attorneys working criminal cases took the “fast track” during their legal training.