CRJU110 Introduction to Criminal Justice
The following 75 items are drawn from chapters 12, 13, and 15. Fifty of them will appear on exam III. The exam will additionally include 15 T/F items each from exams I and II along with 20 T/F items drawn from lectures since exam II.
1.The prohibition against excessive bail is guaranteed by the ____________ Amendment.
2.The Judiciary Act of 1789 extended the right to bail to all
3.The Supreme Court's position on the right to bail has remained essentially the same over the years because
4.Which of the following is generally not a consideration in bail setting?
5.Bail most commonly occurs through the use of
6.Research has demonstrated that persons unable to make bail are more likely to ____________ than persons receiving pretrial release.
7.The use of bail as a mechanism for punishing defendants is an abuse of
8.Follow-up studies of release on recognizance programs have demonstrated that
9.A capias is
10. The information is a charging document filed by the
11. The indictment is a charging document based on
12. A grand jury does not
13. The "true bill" represents a grand jury's
14. A ____________ vote is required for a "true bill."
15. ____________ immunity prohibits the government from using a witness's compelled testimony at a grand jury hearing in a subsequent criminal proceeding.
16. Transactional immunity in the grand jury setting
17. When a grand jury exercises its ____________, witnesses who refuse to testify may be jailed.
18. Refusing to enter a plea results in a plea of
19. The plea of nolo contendere has its advantages over a guilty plea because it
20. "Statutes of limitations" appear in the codes of all state jurisdictions, and their purpose is to
21. The protection against double jeopardy is guaranteed by the ____________ Amendment.
22. A ____________ is a formal request to the court for some action, such as an order or rule.
23. By far, the most common pretrial motions are those of
24. In the ____________ , an objection to a prospective juror can be made and no legal reason for doing so need be assigned.
25. Relevant evidence refers to that which
26. ____________ seeks to make the punishment fit the crime.
27. The statement "you are to be hanged not because you have stolen a sheep but in order that others may not steal sheep" is an example of the ____________ philosophy of punishment.
28. The "just deserts" philosophy of punishment
29. Rehabilitation philosophy is based on the idea that
30. General deterrence seeks to
31. The historic "$30 or 30 days" sentence
32. A sentence of 7 1/2 to 15 years is an example of a(n) ____________ sentence.
33. Fines calculated as multiples of an offender's daily income are referred to as ____________ fines.
34. Presentence investigations
35. ____________ is the period of detention served prior to sentencing.
36. The ____________ Amendment bans cruel and unusual punishment.
37. When the framers of the Constitution incorporated the ban against cruel and unusual punishment into the Bill of Rights, what they probably had in mind was
38. The extensive use of the death penalty in America is likely explained, at least in part, by
39. ____________ was the first case in which the Supreme Court struck down a sentence as being "cruel and unusual."
40. In Weems v. United States, the Supreme Court examined the issue of
41. Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, which organization was most significant in waging a war against the death penalty?
42. In McGautha v. California, the Supreme Court set back the movement to abolish capital punishment when it ruled that
43. In ____________, the High Court held that statutes that leave arbitrary and discriminatory discretion to juries in imposing death sentences violate the Eighth Amendment ban on cruel and unusual punishment.
44. The first person to be executed in the post-Furman era was
45. For inmates sentenced to death under federal statutes, the method of execution is
46. The ____________ argument for capital punishment asserts that "the kidnapper, the murderer, and the rapist, as vile and despicable human beings, deserve to die."
47. Those in favor of capital punishment argue that its use will deter others from committing capital crimes. Given the extensive research and commentary on this argument, it can be concluded that
48. The Supreme Court struck down a state statute that mandated the death penalty for first degree murder in
49. The denial of the right to counsel at trial would allow an appeal under the ____________ rule.
50. The ____________ doctrine holds that a denial of a federal constitutional right can at times be of insufficient magnitude to require a reversal of a conviction on appeal.
51. "Total institutions" are places that
52. ____________ house the most serious of offenders and are characterized by double and triple security patterns.
53. ____________ prisons generally operate without armed guards, walls, or perimeter fences.
54. Which of the following is an incorrect statement regarding contemporary prison administration?
55. Because of the lack of means to carry out their custodial duties, most prison guards
56. . ____________ is a process through which the educational, vocational, treatment, and custodial needs of the offender are determined.
57. The earliest forms of inmate classification included separating
58. Contemporary inmate classification schemes focus on
59. In prison academic education programs, the emphasis is on
60. Which of the following are typically viewed as the primary rehabilitative tools a correctional institution has to offer?
61. The therapeutic community is a
62. Any item that is not issued or authorized in a prison is known as
63. The major rule violations that occur in prisons and result in disciplinary hearings involve
64. As noted in the text, the vast majority of correctional institutions for women only offer vocational training in "female-dominated" occupations. This is problematic for many women inmates because
65. Our limited experience with coeducational prisons suggests that
66. The primary task of prisons is
67. "Prisonization" refers to the process whereby an inmate learns
68. Donald Clemmer's study of the prison community suggests that prisonization
69. Observations in prisons and the underworld suggest that the inmate code
70. The Martinson report on the effectiveness of correctional treatment
71. Protective custody units (PCUs) are designed to house offenders
72. Most wardens and other prison administrators today are
73. A Delaware study of same-gender sexual contacts reported that
74. Most prison inmates were sentenced for ____________ offenses.
75. Alternatives to incarceration for women offenders are being devised because of
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